Monoclonal antibodies (McAb), designated AMH1 (IgM, lambda) and AMH2 (IgG1, Kappa), against specific surface antigens of human lung macrophages were produced by the fusion of the NS-1 plasmacytoma cell line with spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized with bronchoalveolar lavaged (BAL) cells obtained from selected smoking subjects. The screening and characterization of these McAb were carried out employing cellular radioimmunoassay, flow cytofluorography, and immunohistochemical methods. These two antibodies specifically reacted with macrophages in the alveolar spaces and BAL fluids. AMH1 did not react with peripheral blood cells including freshly separated monocytes, cultured monocytes, lymphocytes, granulocytes, and platelets. In addition, AMH1 did not react with peritoneal exudate cells or pleural exudate cells. On the other hand AMH2 showed the dull-positive reaction with some monocytes and pleural exudate cells among above-mentioned cells. These two McAb seemed to detect cell surface antigens that are expressed by highly differentiated or mature macrophages compared to OKM1. These antibodies will allow not only better characterization of immune cells but also assessment of maturity of lung macrophages.