The detection of feature singletons defined in two dimensions is based on salience summation, rather than on serial exhaustive or interactive race architectures

@article{Zehetleitner2009TheDO,
  title={The detection of feature singletons defined in two dimensions is based on salience summation, rather than on serial exhaustive or interactive race architectures},
  author={Michael Zehetleitner and Joseph Krummenacher and Hermann J. M{\"u}ller},
  journal={Attention, Perception, \& Psychophysics},
  year={2009},
  volume={71},
  pages={1739-1759}
}
Influential models of visual search assume that dimension-specific feature contrast signals are summed into a master saliency map in a coactive fashion. The main source of evidence for coactivation models, and against parallel race models, is violations of the race model inequality (RMI; Miller, 1982) by redundantly defined singleton feature targets. However, RMI violations do not rule out serial exhaustive (Townsend & Nozawa, 1997) or interactive race (Mordkoff & Yantis, 1991) architectures… 
Salience-based integration of redundant signals in visual pop-out search: evidence from behavioral and electrophysiological measures.
TLDR
The findings suggest that target signal integration in singleton search paradigms occurs pre-attentively, that is, prior to focal-attentional target selection, with observers basing their responses on the detection of featureless saliency signals, even under conditions in which the target features remain constant and are known in advance.
Salience from the decision perspective: You know where it is before you know it is there.
TLDR
A model of detection and localization tasks based on random walk processes is proposed, which can account for the present findings and is at variance with two classes of standard models of visual search and object recognition.
Inter-trial and redundant-signals effects in visual search and discrimination tasks: Separable pre-attentive and post-selective effects
Feature singleton search is faster when the target-defining dimension is repeated, rather than changed, across trials (Found & Müller, 1996). A similar dimension repetition benefit has been observed
Dimension intertrial and cueing effects in localization: support for pre-attentively weighted one-route models of saliency
TLDR
Early effects of dimensional weighting in a spatial task are examined for, the presence of which is only predicted by the DWA and not by post-selective or dual-route accounts, and strengthens evidence for a pre-attentive origin of these effects.
Redundancy gains in pop-out visual search are determined by top-down task set: behavioral and electrophysiological evidence.
TLDR
It is concluded that redundant-signals effects in pop-out visual search are not driven by bottom-up salience but are instead strongly dependent on top-down task set.
Visual search for feature singletons: multiple mechanisms produce sequence effects in visual search.
TLDR
Dissociation between the PoP and DREs suggests the existence of multiple mechanisms of intertrial effects and, second, that PoP is specific to low target-distractor signal-to-noise ratios when the target fails to pop out.
Modeling violations of the race model inequality in bimodal paradigms: co-activation from decision and non-decision components
TLDR
The results suggest that for the two bimodal detection tasks, co-activation has a shared decisional and non-decisional locus, pointing to the possibility that the mechanisms underlying the RSE depend on the specifics of the experimental paradigm.
Perceptual Basis of Redundancy Gains in Visual Pop-out Search
TLDR
The present study combined mental chronometry with electrophysiological markers that reflect purely preattentive perceptual plus response selection-related (stimulus-locked lateralized readiness potential [LRP]), or purely response production-related processes (response-locked LRP).
Top-down control of attention: it's gradual, practice-dependent, and hierarchically organized.
TLDR
Five experiments were conducted to further the understanding of top-down interference reduction, and provide evidence that interference reduction does not critically depend on the implementation of a feature search mode, but rather on practice with the distractor, that is, the acquisition of an effective suppression strategy.
Features in visual search combine linearly.
TLDR
It is concluded that features in visual search co-activate linearly and it is demonstrated for the first time that aspect ratio is a novel feature that guides visual search.
...
1
2
3
4
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 93 REFERENCES
Visual search for dimensionally redundant pop-out targets: Evidence for parallel-coactive processing of dimensions
TLDR
In two visual search experiments, the detection of singleton feature targets redundantly defined on multiple dimensions was investigated, providing evidence for parallel-coactive processing of multiple dimensions, consistent with the dimension-weighting account of Müller, Heller, and Ziegler (1995).
Visual search for dimensionally redundant pop-out targets: parallel-coactive processing of dimensions is location specific.
TLDR
Three visual search experiments investigated redundancy gains for single and dual odd-one-out feature targets that differed from distractors in orientation, color, or both to suggest that there is coactivation of a common mechanism by target signals in different dimensions, that the coactivation effects are spatially specific, and that theCoactivated mechanisms are located at a preattentive, perceptual stage of processing.
Dividing attention between color and shape: Evidence of coactivation
TLDR
It is concluded that coactivation occurs when target attributes from two separable dimensions are simultaneously present, but not when target Attributes come from the same dimension.
Visual search for singleton feature targets within and across feature dimensions
TLDR
Three experiments investigated visual search for singleton feature targets and found that pop-out requires (or involves) knowledge of the particular dimension in which an odd-one-out target differs from the nontargets; furthermore, that knowledge is acquired through the elimination of dimensions not containing a target.
An interactive race model of divided attention.
  • J. Mordkoff, S. Yantis
  • Medicine
    Journal of experimental psychology. Human perception and performance
  • 1991
TLDR
The results reveal that response times are significantly influenced by both interstimulus and stimulus-response contingencies and the interactive race model provides a natural account of these findings as well as several otherwise puzzling results in the divided-attention literature.
Redundancy gains and coactivation with two different targets: The problem of target preferences and the effects of display frequency
TLDR
Exam 1 shows that the race-model inequality is not violated when the experimental design is free of biased contingencies; Experiment 1 also provides evidence that target preferences may artifactually produce the RT advantage fordifferent- oversame-target trials.
Feature integration theory revisited: dissociating feature detection and attentional guidance in visual search.
  • L. Chan, W. Hayward
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Journal of experimental psychology. Human perception and performance
  • 2009
TLDR
Measurement of dimension-specific performance during detection and localization, tasks that require operation of dimensional modules and the master map, respectively, showed a dissociation between tasks in terms of both dimension-switching costs and cross-dimension attentional capture, supporting FIT's postulation that different mechanisms are involved in parallel and focal attention searches.
Spatio-temporal properties of elementary perception: an investigation of parallel, serial, and coactive theories
Abstract A mathematical theory and related experimental methodology are developed that permit strong, converging tests of parallel versus serial versus channel summation processing and of exhaustive
Feature analysis in early vision: evidence from search asymmetries.
TLDR
The results of a series of search experiments are interpreted as evidence that focused attention to single items or to groups is required to reduce background activity when the Weber fraction distinguishing the pooled feature activity with displayscontaining a target and with displays containing only distractors is too small to allow reliable discrimination.
Feature-specific interactions in salience from combined feature contrasts: evidence for a bottom-up saliency map in V1.
TLDR
These results provide support for the V1 hypothesis of bottom-up salience but are contrary to expectation from the "feature summation" hypothesis, in which different stimulus features are initially analyzed independently and subsequently summed to form a single salience map.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...