The demise of short-term memory revisited: empirical and computational investigations of recency effects.

  title={The demise of short-term memory revisited: empirical and computational investigations of recency effects.},
  author={Eddy J. Davelaar and Yonatan Goshen-Gottstein and Amir Ashkenazi and Henk J. Haarmann and Marius Usher},
  journal={Psychological review},
  volume={112 1},
In the single-store model of memory, the enhanced recall for the last items in a free-recall task (i.e., the recency effect) is understood to reflect a general property of memory rather than a separate short-term store. This interpretation is supported by the finding of a long-term recency effect under conditions that eliminate the contribution from the short-term store. In this article, evidence is reviewed showing that recency effects in the short and long terms have different properties, and… 
Semantic similarity dissociates short- from long-term recency effects: Testing a neurocomputational model of list memory
A new dissociation between short- and long-term recency based on semantic similarity is presented, which is predicted by the model and is due to the mutual support between associated items in the short-term store, which takes place in immediate free recall and delayed free recall but not in continuous-distractor free recall.
The long-term recency effect in recognition memory
The long-term recency effect in continuous-distractor recognition was equivalent to the recencyEffect in immediate recognition and its absence in the delayed recognition condition demonstrated that it was not attributed to the use of a putative short-term memory store.
Putting short-term memory into context: Reply to Usher and colleagues (2008)
The temporal context model (TCM-A) uses an internal contextual state as the sole cue for retrieval to capture the dynamics of immediate, delayed, and continual-distractor free recall, including
Long-Term Recency in Anterograde Amnesia
The findings suggest that interference mechanisms are preserved in amnesia despite the overall impairment to LTM, and challenge strict dual-store models of memory and their dominance in explaining amnesia.
Short-term memory after all: comment on Sederberg, Howard, and Kahana (2008).
It is argued that the success of TCM-A in addressing the dissociations is dependent not only on an episodic encoding matrix but--critically--also on its implicit use of a short-term memory store--albeit exponential rather than buffer-like.
A buffer model of memory encoding and temporal correlations in retrieval.
A novel variant of Atkinson and Shiffrin's buffer model within the framework of the retrieving effectively from memory theory (REM) that accounts for findings previously thought to be difficult for such models to explain is described.
Associative processes in immediate recency
Recall transitions early in output—and even the initiation of recall itself—showed evidence for temporally defined associations that resemble those observed in recall from long-term memory, which have strong implications for models of the immediate recency effect in free recall.
Postscript: Distinguishing between Temporal Context and Short-Term Store.
Context retrieval and context change in free recall: Recalling from long-term memory drives list isolation. Temporal limits of selection and memory encoding: A comparison of whole versus partial
Short-term memory based on activated long-term memory: A review in response to Norris (2017).
  • N. Cowan
  • Psychology, Biology
    Psychological bulletin
  • 2019
Evidence is summarized for premises of Norris' case for a prominent class of theories in which STM depends on the brain keeping a separate copy of new information and an updated version of an alternative theory in which storage depends on aLTM, and, embedded within it, information enhanced by the current focus of attention, with no need for a separate STM copy.


The demise of short-term memory.
Contextual variability and serial position effects in free recall.
Both the end of list Recency effect and the lag recency effect, across all distractor conditions, can be explained by a single-store model in which context, retrieved with each recalled item, serves as a cue for subsequent recalls.
Evidence against a short-term-store account of long-term recency effects
It is not true that long-term recency effects are found only when subjects have an opportunity to adapt to the distractor task, and the results are not consistent with a short-term-store account ofRecency effects.
The episodic buffer: a new component of working memory?
  • A. Baddeley
  • Biology, Psychology
    Trends in Cognitive Sciences
  • 2000
Short Term Memory and Selection Processes in a Frontal-Lobe Model
We present a neural model that addresses the capacity of a frontal lobe system to hold up information for short periods of time and to perform response selection. In the model, reverberation states
Maintenance of semantic information in capacity-limited item short-term memory
A semantic effect in immediate free recall is reported, which is localized at recency and is preserved under articulatory suppression but is highly reduced when recall is delayed after an intervening distractor task, suggesting that in addition to the phonological component in verbal STM, there is an activation/ item-limited component with semantically sensitive representations.
An examination of the continuous distractor task and the “long-term recency effect”
It is concluded that the adaptation and time-sharing processes need to be included-in-the-dual-storage-model-of shortterm storage, resulting from adaptation to the repeated presentation of a particular type of distractor throughout the list.
Effects of list length on short-term memory