Trans-Modulation of the Somatostatin Type 2A Receptor Trafficking by Insulin-Regulated Aminopeptidase Decreases Limbic Seizures.
Somatostatin was degraded by the synaptic membrane from rat hippocampus. Cleavage products were separated by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography and identified by amino acid composition analyses and N-terminal amino acid and sequence determinations around the cleavage sites. Fragments produced from the cleavages at both or either sites between the Phe6-Phe7 and/or between the Thr10-Phe11, together with free phenylalanine and tryptophan, were major cleavage products, followed by that produced from the cleavage of the Asn5-Phe6 bond. The accumulation of the major cleavage products, as well as the initial cleavage of somatostatin, was strongly inhibited by metal chelators and also by specific inhibitors of endopeptidase-24.11 (EC 220.127.116.11), phosphoramidon and thiorphan. The inhibitor susceptibility of the synaptic membrane toward somatostatin was similar to that toward Leu-enkephalin, a natural substrate of endopeptidase-24.11. Furthermore, endopeptidase-24.11 purified from rat brain hydrolyzed somatostatin at the cleavage sites identical to those by the hippocampal synaptic membrane. Thus, it can be concluded that endopeptidase-24.11 plays a major role in the initial stage of somatostatin degradation in rat hippocampus.