The critical role of retrieval practice in long-term retention

@article{Roediger2011TheCR,
  title={The critical role of retrieval practice in long-term retention},
  author={Henry L. Roediger and Andrew C. Butler},
  journal={Trends in Cognitive Sciences},
  year={2011},
  volume={15},
  pages={20-27}
}

Figures from this paper

Free recall enhances subsequent learning
TLDR
A paradigm is introduced that can measure the indirect, potentiating effect of free recall tests on subsequent learning, and a hypothesis for why tests may have this potentiate effect is tested.
Retrieval Practice Makes Procedure From Remembering: An Automatization Account of the Testing Effect
TLDR
It is suggested that the automatization of retrieval is an explanatory component of the testing effect, and retrieval-based learning has the properties characteristic of skill learning: diminishing involvement of attentional processes, faster processing, resistance to interference effects, and lower forgetting rate.
Retrieval Practice Produces More Learning in Multiple-list Tests with Higher-Order Skills
Learning is usually thought to occur during episodes of studying, while the retrieval of information on testing simply serves to assess what was learned. Test-enhanced learning, or the use of tests
Test-potentiated learning: distinguishing between direct and indirect effects of tests.
TLDR
The experiment presented here uses conditional probability to disentangle test-potentiated learning from the direct effects of retrieval practice, and indicates that unsuccessful retrieval attempts enhance the effectiveness of subsequent restudy, demonstrating that tests do potentiate subsequent learning.
Retrieval-Based Learning
TLDR
The retrieval-based learning perspective outlined here is grounded in the fact that all expressions of knowledge involve retrieval and depend on the retrieval cues available in a given context.
The Influence of Retrieval Practice Versus Delayed Judgments of Learning on Memory: Resolving a Memory-Metamemory Paradox.
TLDR
Differences in the dynamics of retrieval for practice tests versus delayed JOLs are responsible for the memory-metamemory paradox, and participants spent less time to make J OLs than to retrieve responses.
Planning Education for Long‐Term Retention: The Cognitive Science and Implementation of Retrieval Practice
TLDR
By using the principles of retrieval practice, educators can improve the likelihood that learners will retain information for longer periods of time and lead to shifts from ineffective to effective retrieval strategies.
Reversing the testing effect by feedback is a matter of performance criterion at practice
TLDR
The results point to the conclusion that the level of retrieval success was the key factor in reversing the testing effect in earlier studies, and application of high retrieval success during practice can produce long-lasting accessible memories even in learning settings applying multiple tests with feedback.
Benefits of memory retrieval for vocabulary learning: A neurocognitive perspective
The work described in this dissertation is an attempt to gain insight into practice conditions that lead to effective vocabulary learning in a foreign language, and in particular, into the benefits
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 105 REFERENCES
The Critical Importance of Retrieval for Learning
TLDR
The results demonstrate the critical role of retrieval practice in consolidating learning and show that even university students seem unaware of this fact.
Long-term effects of testing on the recall of nontested materials
TLDR
The results indicate that the magnitude of retrieval-induced facilitation increases with delay at the beginning but asymptotes afterward, similar to the memorial benefit of testing on the tested material.
Retrieval-induced facilitation: initially nontested material can benefit from prior testing of related material.
TLDR
Three experiments examined how taking an initial test affects later memory for prose materials not initially tested, showing that testing enhanced recall 24 hr later for the initially nontested material.
When does feedback facilitate learning of words?
TLDR
Supplying the correct answer after an incorrect response not only improved performance during the initial learning session--it also increased final retention by 494% and made little difference either immediately or at a delay, regardless of whether the subject was confident in the response.
Expanding retrieval practice promotes short-term retention, but equally spaced retrieval enhances long-term retention.
TLDR
The authors found that expanding retrieval practice of vocabulary word pairs produced short-term benefits 10 min after learning, conceptually replicating Landauer and Bjork's results, but equally spaced retrieval produced superior retention 2 days later.
Enhancing learning and retarding forgetting: Choices and consequences
TLDR
It is suggested that as questions about spacing of practice affect retention of information over significant retention intervals are found, it should become possible for cognitive psychology to offer nonobvious advice that can be applied in a variety of instructional contexts to facilitate learning and reduce forgetting.
...
...