The cranial venous sinus system in Australopithecus afarensis

@article{Falk1983TheCV,
  title={The cranial venous sinus system in Australopithecus afarensis},
  author={Dean Falk and Glenn C. Conroy},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1983},
  volume={306},
  pages={779-781}
}
An enlarged occipital-marginal venous sinus system occurs in much higher frequencies in cranial remains of robust australopithecines and Australopithecus afarensis than in crania representing other fossil or extant hominids. A detailed functional interpretation of this ‘accessory’ sinus system is suggested here. Such a system would have permitted blood to flow preferentially to either the vertebral or the internal jugular system, depending on postural and respiratory changes, and thus provides… 

Evolution of cranial blood drainage in hominids: enlarged occipital/marginal sinuses and emissary foramina.

  • D. Falk
  • Biology
    American journal of physical anthropology
  • 1986
The findings suggest that selection for bipedalism initially resulted in epigenetic adaptations for routes to deliver blood to the vertebral plexus including an enlarged O/M sinus system and hypoglossal canals, but that the pressures underlying these adaptations relaxed as bipedALism became established.

Evidence for a dual pattern of cranial venous sinuses on the endocranial cast of Taung (Australopithecus africanus).

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Results show that endocranial capacity in this specimen is less than originally proposed and also support the view that gracile and robust australopithecines evolved different cranial venous outflow patterns in response to upright postures.

A cranial base of Australopithecus robustus from the hanging remnant of Swartkrans, South Africa.

Cranial base measures of SKW 18 expand the range of values previously recorded for A. robustus, provides information on anatomical features not previously visible in this taxon, and expands the knowledge of morphological variability recognizable in the cranial base.

Occipital Emissary Foramina in South Indian Modern Human Skulls

A new finding is that bilateral foramina were observed in 3 skulls (14.28%).

The basilar venous plexus

Clinicians and radiologists should take into account this variability when managing cerebral venous disorders or interpreting imaging studies of the skull base by elucidate further the anatomy of this structure of the posterior cranial fossa venous structure.

Taxonomic affinities of the immature hominid crania from Hadar and Taung

A study of the facial morphology of the Taung specimen which, together with recent observations on its dentition, provides strong evidence against the allocation of theTaung child to the Paranthropus clade.
...

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