# The covariant formulation of Maxwell's equations expressed in a form independent of specific units

@article{Heras2008TheCF, title={The covariant formulation of Maxwell's equations expressed in a form independent of specific units}, author={Jos{\'e} A. Heras and Gerson Beauchamp B{\'a}ez}, journal={European Journal of Physics}, year={2008}, volume={30}, pages={23 - 33} }

The covariant formulation of Maxwell's equations can be expressed in a form independent of the usual systems of units by introducing the constants α, β and γ into these equations. Maxwell's equations involving these constants are then specialized to the most commonly used systems of units: Gaussian, SI and Heaviside–Lorentz by giving the constants α, β and γ the values appropriate to each system.

## 13 Citations

### Electromagnetic Classical Field Theory in a Form Independent of Specific Units

- Mathematics, Physics
- 2019

In this article we have illustrated how is possible to formulate Maxwell's equations in vacuum in an independent form of the usual systems of units. Maxwell's equations, are then specialized to the…

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The covariant Maxwell equations are derived from the continuity equation for the electric charge. This result provides an axiomatic approach to Maxwell's equations in which charge conservation is…

### The equivalence principle and the correct form of writing Maxwell's equations

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This paper suggests an axiomatic approach to Maxwell’s equations. The basis of this approach is a theorem formulated for two sets of functions localized in space and time. If each set satisfies a…

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Nowadays Maxwell’s equations are formulated merely in the SI system. Physicists should also be familiar with other systems, like the systems of Gauss and Heaviside, but a comparison of equations in…

### The Galilean limits of Maxwell’s equations

- Physics
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We show that if Maxwell’s equations are expressed in a form independent of specific units, at least three Galilean limits can be extracted. The electric and magnetic limits can be regarded as…

### Non-relativistic limits of Maxwell’s equations

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In 1973, Le Bellac and Lévy-Leblond (Nuovo Cimento B 14 217–234) discovered that Maxwell’s equations possess two non-relativistic Galilei-covariant limits, corresponding to |E| ≫ c|B| (electric…

### Can the Lorenz-gauge potentials be considered physical quantities?

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Two results support the idea that the scalar and vector potentials in the Lorenz gauge can be considered to be physical quantities: (i) they separately satisfy the properties of causality and…

### Electromagnetism, axions, and topology: A first-order operator approach to constitutive responses provides greater freedom

- PhysicsPhysical Review A
- 2020

We show how the standard constitutive assumptions for the macroscopic Maxwell equations can be relaxed. This is done by arguing that the Maxwellian excitation fields (D, H) should be dispensed with,…

### On Feynman’s handwritten notes on electromagnetism and the idea of introducing potentials before fields

- PhysicsEuropean Journal of Physics
- 2020

In his recently discovered handwritten notes on ‘An alternate way to handle electrodynamics’ dated on 1963, Richard P Feynman speculated with the idea of getting the inhomogeneous Maxwell’s equations…

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