The covariant formulation of Maxwell's equations expressed in a form independent of specific units

  title={The covariant formulation of Maxwell's equations expressed in a form independent of specific units},
  author={Jos{\'e} A. Heras and Gerson Beauchamp B{\'a}ez},
  journal={European Journal of Physics},
  pages={23 - 33}
The covariant formulation of Maxwell's equations can be expressed in a form independent of the usual systems of units by introducing the constants α, β and γ into these equations. Maxwell's equations involving these constants are then specialized to the most commonly used systems of units: Gaussian, SI and Heaviside–Lorentz by giving the constants α, β and γ the values appropriate to each system. 

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Am. J. Phys

  • Am. J. Phys
  • 2007