The covariant formulation of Maxwell's equations expressed in a form independent of specific units

  title={The covariant formulation of Maxwell's equations expressed in a form independent of specific units},
  author={Jos{\'e} A Heras and G. B{\'a}ez},
  journal={arXiv: Classical Physics},
The covariant formulation of Maxwell's equations can be expressed in a form independent of the usual systems of units by introducing the constants alpha, beta and gamma into these equations. Maxwell's equations involving these constants are then specialized to the most commonly used systems of units: Gaussian, SI and Heaviside-Lorentz by giving the constants alpha, beta and gamma the values appropriate to each system. 

Tables from this paper

Electromagnetic Classical Field Theory in a Form Independent of Specific Units
In this article we have illustrated how is possible to formulate Maxwell's equations in vacuum in an independent form of the usual systems of units. Maxwell's equations, are then specialized to theExpand
How to obtain the covariant form of Maxwell's equations from the continuity equation
The covariant Maxwell equations are derived from the continuity equation for the electric charge. This result provides an axiomatic approach to Maxwell's equations in which charge conservation isExpand
An axiomatic approach to Maxwell’s equations
This paper suggests an axiomatic approach to Maxwell's equations. The basis of this approach is a theorem formulated for two sets of functions localized in space and time. If each set satisfies aExpand
Unit system independent formulation of electrodynamics
Nowadays Maxwell’s equations are formulated merely in the SI system. Physicists should also be familiar with other systems, like the systems of Gauss and Heaviside, but a comparison of equations inExpand
The Galilean limits of Maxwell’s equations
We show that if Maxwell’s equations are expressed in a form independent of specific units, at least three Galilean limits can be extracted. The electric and magnetic limits can be regarded asExpand
The {\boldsymbol{c}} equivalence principle and the correct form of writing Maxwell's equations
It is well known that the speed is obtained in the process of defining SI units via action-at-a-distance forces, like the force between two static charges and the force between two long and parallelExpand
Non-relativistic limits of Maxwell?s equations
In 1973, Le Bellac and Levy-Leblond (Nuovo Cimento B 14 217–234) discovered that Maxwell’s equations possess two non-relativistic Galilei-covariant limits, corresponding to |E| ≫ c|B| (electricExpand
Can the Lorenz-Gauge Potentials Be Considered Physical Quantities?.
Two results support the idea that the scalar and vector potentials in the Lorenz gauge can be considered to be physical quantities: (i) they separately satisfy the properties of causality andExpand
On Feynman’s handwritten notes on electromagnetism and the idea of introducing potentials before fields
In his recently discovered handwritten notes on "An alternate way to handle electrodynamics" dated on 1963, Richard P. Feynman speculated with the idea of getting the inhomogeneous Maxwell'sExpand
Updating Maxwell with Electrons, Charge, and More Realistic Polarization.
Maxwell's equations describe the relation of charge and electric force almost perfectly even though electrons and permanent charge were not in his equations, as he wrote them. For Maxwell, all chargeExpand


A note on the 'system-free' expressions of Maxwell's equations
Expressions for Maxwell's equations independent of the unit system are presented and compared with those given in Jackson's book. Both the cases of electromagnetism in vacuum and in a medium areExpand
Electromagnetic Equations Written in a Form Independent of the System of Units
This paper illustrates a form for writing electromagnetic equations such that by substituting the appropriate value for each of two arbitrary constants one immediately obtains the electromagneticExpand
Can Maxwell’s equations be obtained from the continuity equation?
We formulate an existence theorem that states that, given localized scalar and vector time-dependent sources satisfying the continuity equation, there exist two retarded fields that satisfy a set ofExpand
Comment on ‘A note on the “system-free” expressions of Maxwell's equations’
Some didactic aspects of the problem of writing Maxwell's equations independently of the unit systems are presented. In the case of the equations for the electromagnetic field in a medium it isExpand
Generalized Conversion of Electromagnetic Units, Measures, and Equations
A formulation of electromagnetic theory in generalized units is used to derive a scheme which is capable of transforming the measures and units of any electromagnetic quantity, and of converting anyExpand
Electromagnetic Equations in Generalized Units
The work of Berreman is extended by making the equations valid in the Gaussian and Heaviside-Lorentz systems and by adding other relations of importance or interest.
Classical Electromagnetic Theory
Static Electric and Magnetic Fields in Vacuum.- Charge and Current Distributions.- Slowly Varying Fields in Vacuum.- Energy and Momentum.- Static Potentials in Vacuum - Laplace's Equation.- StaticExpand
Formalized System of Equations in Electromagnetism
General principles involved in setting up unit systems of physics have been briefly indicated. The paper, intended as a contribution to teaching, is in the main concerned with the application ofExpand
Introduction to Electrodynamics
1. Vector Analysis. Vector Algebra. Differential Calculus. Integral Calculus. Curvilinear Coordinates. The Dirac Delta Function. The Theory of Vector Fields. 2. Electrostatics. The ElectrostaticExpand
Classical Electrodynamics
Electrodynamics of Particles and PlasmasBy P. C. Clemmow and J. P. Dougherty. (Addison-Wesley Series in Advanced Physics.) Pp. ix + 457. (Addison-Wesley London, September 1969.) 163s.