# The covariant formulation of Maxwell's equations expressed in a form independent of specific units

```@article{Heras2008TheCF,
title={The covariant formulation of Maxwell's equations expressed in a form independent of specific units},
author={Jos{\'e} A. Heras and Gerson Beauchamp B{\'a}ez},
journal={European Journal of Physics},
year={2008},
volume={30},
pages={23 - 33}
}```
• Published 1 January 2009
• Physics
• European Journal of Physics
The covariant formulation of Maxwell's equations can be expressed in a form independent of the usual systems of units by introducing the constants α, β and γ into these equations. Maxwell's equations involving these constants are then specialized to the most commonly used systems of units: Gaussian, SI and Heaviside–Lorentz by giving the constants α, β and γ the values appropriate to each system.

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