The costs and benefits of cooperation between the Australian lycaenid butterfly, Jalmenus evagoras, and its attendant ants

Abstract

The larvae and pupae of the Australian lycaenid butterfly, Jalmenus evagoras associate mutualistically with ants in the genus Iridomyrmex. Four ant exclusion experiments in three field sites demonstrated that predation and parasitism of J. evagoras are so intense that individuals deprived of their attendant ants are unlikely to survive. Larvae and pupae of… (More)
DOI: 10.1007/BF00292505

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@article{Pierce2004TheCA, title={The costs and benefits of cooperation between the Australian lycaenid butterfly, Jalmenus evagoras, and its attendant ants}, author={Naomi E Pierce and Roger L. Kitching and R. C. Buckley and M. F. Taylor and K. F. Benbow}, journal={Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology}, year={2004}, volume={21}, pages={237-248} }