The costal skeleton of Shanidar 3 and a reappraisal of Neandertal thoracic morphology.

@article{Franciscus2002TheCS,
  title={The costal skeleton of Shanidar 3 and a reappraisal of Neandertal thoracic morphology.},
  author={Robert G. Franciscus and Steven Emilio Churchill},
  journal={Journal of human evolution},
  year={2002},
  volume={42 3},
  pages={303-56}
}
For over a century, Neandertal rib remains have engendered frequent discussions of "barrel-shaped" thoraces, largely in the absence of systematic comparison and hard data. We present here a description of the relatively complete ribcage of the Near Eastern Shanidar 3 Neandertal. We also furnish metric and non-metric comparisons of the Shanidar 3 ribs with other Near Eastern and European Neandertals, the Nariokotome (Homo erectus/ergaster) specimen, Levantine archaic/early modern humans, early… CONTINUE READING

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