A simultaneous assessment of relationship of central and renal hemodynamic parameters has been performed in patients with a renal transplant of different functional performance. Radionuclide routine techniques of one-passage radiocardiography and indirect renal angiography in single bolus intravenous introduction of radiopharmaceutical were used. Three groups of patients were identified according to functional capacity of the renal transplant: 15 patients with satisfactory function of the transplant for 85 days on the average (group 1); 8 patients with unstable function of the transplant for 155 days (group 2); 7 patients with poor function of the transplant for 375 days on the average. The transplant's function was judged by the routine clinical data including blood urea, arterial pressure, heart rate, diuresis, the patients' complaints. Basic parameters of central hemodynamics appeared elevated in all the three groups, the differences being statistically insignificant. However, total peripheral vascular resistance was growing with deterioration of the renal function. Renal hemodynamics worsened with the decline of the transplant's function. Investigation of the relationships between total peripheral vascular resistance (TPVR) and renal vascular resistance (RVR) showed that between the groups there was a significant difference by RVR/TPVR (7.0, 9.0 and 14.0 for groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively), the higher value being the indication of increasing uremic intoxication and functional decline. A simultaneous rise of RVR and TPVR in persistent ratio 7-8 was associated with acute failure of the function in 7-14 days (3 cases). The results of the trial support the validity of simultaneous assessment of central and renal hemodynamics for specifying function of the renal transplant and cardiovascular system in patients with terminal renal failure and transplanted kidney as well as to define the risk group of the transplant's functional failure 7-14 days before manifestation of clinical symptoms.