The convergent evolution of snake‐like forms by divergent evolutionary pathways in squamate reptiles *

@article{Bergmann2019TheCE,
  title={The convergent evolution of snake‐like forms by divergent evolutionary pathways in squamate reptiles *},
  author={Philip J. Bergmann and Gen Morinaga},
  journal={Evolution},
  year={2019},
  volume={73}
}
Convergent evolution of phenotypes is considered evidence that evolution is deterministic. Establishing if such convergent phenotypes arose through convergent evolutionary pathways is a stronger test of determinism. We studied the evolution of snake‐like body shapes in six clades of lizards, each containing species ranging from short‐bodied and pentadactyl to long‐bodied and limbless. We tested whether body shapes that evolved in each clade were convergent, and whether clades evolved snake‐like… 

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