The convergent evolution of snake‐like forms by divergent evolutionary pathways in squamate reptiles *

@article{Bergmann2019TheCE,
  title={The convergent evolution of snake‐like forms by divergent evolutionary pathways in squamate reptiles *},
  author={Philip J. Bergmann and Gen Morinaga},
  journal={Evolution},
  year={2019},
  volume={73}
}
Convergent evolution of phenotypes is considered evidence that evolution is deterministic. Establishing if such convergent phenotypes arose through convergent evolutionary pathways is a stronger test of determinism. We studied the evolution of snake‐like body shapes in six clades of lizards, each containing species ranging from short‐bodied and pentadactyl to long‐bodied and limbless. We tested whether body shapes that evolved in each clade were convergent, and whether clades evolved snake‐like… 
Convergent evolution of elongate forms in craniates and of locomotion in elongate squamate reptiles.
TLDR
This is the first craniate-wide analysis of how many times elongate body forms have evolved, as well as rates of its evolution and reversion to a non-elongate form, and among the first evidence of locomotor convergence across distantly related, elongate species.
First evidence of convergent lifestyle signal in reptile skull roof microanatomy
TLDR
It is found that fossoriality evolved independently in 54 lepidosaur lineages and a highly compact skull roof, small skull diameter, elongate cranium, and low length ratio of frontal and parietal were repeatedly acquired in concert with a fossorial lifestyle.
Locomotion and palaeoclimate explain the re-evolution of quadrupedal body form in Brachymeles lizards
TLDR
It is shown that large, quadrupedal species are faster at burying and surface locomotion than snake-like species, indicating a lack of expected performance trade-off between these modes of locomotion.
Evolution of fossorial locomotion in the transition from tetrapod to snake-like in lizards
TLDR
Testing whether trade-offs exist between locomotion in surface, fossorial and cluttered habitats in Australian Lerista lizards found that snake-like species penetrated sand substrates faster than more lizard- like species, representing the first direct support of the adaptation to fossoriality hypothesis.
Phenotypic differentiation of the slow worm lizards (Squamata: Anguis) across their contact zone in Central Europe
TLDR
It is suggested that different evolutionary histories of the taxa rather than recently acting selection explain the observed morphological variation and several hypotheses on the origin and evolutionary maintenance of the morphological divergence between both species are presented.
Wing Musculature Reconstruction in Extinct Flightless Auks (Pinguinus and Mancalla) Reveals Incomplete Convergence with Penguins (Spheniscidae) Due to Differing Ancestral States
TLDR
The wings of these flightless wing-propelled divers can be described as convergent as overall functional units, but are incompletely convergent at lower levels of anatomical organization—a result of retaining differing conditions from each group’s respective volant ancestors.
Hidden limbs in the “limbless skink” Brachymeles lukbani: developmental observations
TLDR
The observed pattern of ontogenetic reduction, leading to an externally limbless adult in which a limb rudiment is hidden and covered under the trunk skin, is a situation called cryptomelia and adds to the growing understanding of clade-specific patterns of limb reduction and the convergent evolution of limbless phenotypes through different developmental processes.
A chromosome-level genome assembly for the eastern fence lizard (Sceloporus undulatus), a reptile model for physiological and evolutionary ecology
TLDR
A high-quality chromosome-level reference genome assembly, SceUnd1.0, and tissue/developmental stage transcriptomes for the Eastern Fence Lizard, Sceloporus undulatus are presented, providing valuable tools for advanced molecular analysis of an organism that has become a model in physiology and evolutionary ecology.
Coordinating tiny limbs and long bodies: geometric mechanics of diverse undulatory lizard locomotion
TLDR
These models could be valuable in understanding functional constraints on the evolutionary process of elongation and limb reduction in lizards, as well as advancing robot designs.
A database of the morphology, ecology and literature of the world's limb‐reduced skinks
Limb‐reduced squamates are a convenient model system to investigate macroevolutionary trends in morphology. Here, we provide morphological, ecological and literature data on all known species of
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 133 REFERENCES
Convergent body shapes have evolved via deterministic and historically contingent pathways in Lerista lizards
TLDR
This work tested for morphological convergence in body elongation and limb reduction and the evolutionary pathways that gave rise to them in two major clades of Lerista, a species-rich genus of semi-fossorial lizards endemic to Australia, and showed strong evidence that the two clades evolved deterministically.
HOW LIZARDS TURN INTO SNAKES: A PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF BODY‐FORM EVOLUTION IN ANGUID LIZARDS
TLDR
This paper combines a molecular phylogeny for 27 species, morphometric data, and phylogenetic comparative methods to provide the first statistical phylogenetic tests of several long‐standing hypotheses for the evolution of snakelike body form, and finds no support for the hypothesized sequence going from body elongation to limb reduction to digit loss.
Convergent Evolution: Limited Forms Most Beautiful
TLDR
In this book, George McGhee describes the ubiquity of the phenomenon of convergent evolution and connects it directly to the concept of evolutionary constraint--the idea that the number of evolutionary pathways available to life are not endless, but quite limited.
Evolution of the snake body form reveals homoplasy in amniote Hox gene function
TLDR
It is demonstrated that morphometric regional boundaries correspond to mapped gene expression domains in snakes, suggesting that their primaxial domain is patterned by a normally functional Hox code.
Rates and Patterns in the Evolution of Snake-Like Body Form in Squamate Reptiles: Evidence for Repeated Re-Evolution of Lost Digits and Long-Term Persistence of Intermediate Body Forms
TLDR
Using morphometric data for 258 species and a time-calibrated phylogeny to explore rates and patterns of body-form evolution across squamates, it is found that the transition from lizard-like to snake-like body form involves concerted evolution of limb reduction, digit loss, and body elongation.
CONVERGENT EVOLUTION AS A GENERATOR OF PHENOTYPIC DIVERSITY IN THREESPINE STICKLEBACK
  • M. McGee, P. Wainwright
  • Biology, Environmental Science
    Evolution; international journal of organic evolution
  • 2013
TLDR
Data from the North Pacific threespine stickleback radiation is presented showing that ecologically and functionally similar, but morphologically divergent phenotypes rapidly evolved when an ancestral population colonized freshwater benthic habitats in parallel, suggesting that convergent evolution may, paradoxically, be an important and previously underappreciated source of morphological diversity.
Developmental, genetic, and genomic insights into the evolutionary loss of limbs in snakes
TLDR
The idea that pleiotropy of cis‐regulatory elements may illuminate the convergent genetic changes that occurred in snake‐like lizards is explored, and a number of challenges that remain to be addressed in future studies are discussed.
Morphological diversity and ecological similarity: versatility of muscular and skeletal morphologies enables ecological convergence in shrews
TLDR
The observed functional and ecological convergences resulted from population-specific musculoskeletal interactions, and it is suggested that the differences in skeletal and muscular morphologies observed among these populations reflect evolved differences in plasticity of the skeletal and muscle components of the mandible.
EVIDENCE FOR REPEATED ACQUISITION AND LOSS OF COMPLEX BODY‐FORM CHARACTERS IN AN INSULAR CLADE OF SOUTHEAST ASIAN SEMI‐FOSSORIAL SKINKS
TLDR
One of the most comprehensive, fine‐scale analyses of squamate body‐form evolution to date is provided, introducing a new model system of closely related, morphologically variable, lizards and revealing that species of the genus Brachymeles exemplify regions of morphospace (body plans) previously undocumented in squamates.
Extreme morphological and ecological homoplasy in tropical salamanders
  • G. Parra‐Olea, D. Wake
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2001
TLDR
A robust phylogenetic hypothesis, based on sequences of three mtDNA genes, finds Lineatriton to be deeply nested within a clade characterized by generalized ecology and morphology, and Surprisingly, geographically separated populations of L. lineolus are not monophyletic, but are sister taxa of different species of the morphologically generalized genus Pseudoeurycea.
...
...