The convective photosphere of the red supergiant CE Tauri

  title={The convective photosphere of the red supergiant CE Tauri},
  author={Miguel Montarg{\`e}s and Ray P. Norris and Andrea Chiavassa and B. Tessore and A. L{\`e}bre and Fabien R. Baron},
  journal={Astronomy \& Astrophysics},
Context. Red supergiant stars are one of the latest stages in the evolution of massive stars. Their photospheric convection may play an important role in the launching mechanism of their mass loss; however, its characteristics and dynamics are still poorly constrained. Aims. By observing red supergiant stars with near infrared interferometry at different epochs, we expect to reveal the evolution of bright convective features on their stellar surface. Methods. We observed the M2Iab-Ib red… 

MOLsphere and pulsations of the Galactic Center’s red supergiant GCIRS 7 from VLTI/GRAVITY

Context. GCIRS 7, the brightest star in the Galactic central parsec, formed 6 ± 2 Myr ago together with dozens of massive stars in a disk orbiting the central black-hole. It has been argued that

VLTI-PIONIER imaging of the red supergiant V602 Carinae

Context. Red supergiant stars possess surface features and extended molecular atmospheres. Photospheric convection may be a crucial factor of the levitation of the outer atmospheric layers. However,

Convective cells in Betelgeuse: imaging through spectropolarimetry

Aims. We assess the ability to image the photosphere of red supergiants and, in particular Betelgeuse, through the modelling of the observed linear polarization in atomic spectral lines. We also aim

On the Detectability of Large-Scale Flows by Asteroseismology

Large-scale convective motions are an integral part of stellar interior dynamics and might play a relevant role in stellar dynamo processes. However, they are difficult to detect or characterize.

NOEMA maps the CO J = 2 − 1 environment of the red supergiant $\mu$ Cep★

Red supergiant stars are surrounded by a gaseous and dusty circumstellar environment created by their mass loss which spreads heavy elements into the interstellar medium. The structure and the

Long Term Evolution of Surface Features on the Red Supergiant AZ Cyg

We present H-band interferometric observations of the red supergiant (RSG) AZ Cyg that were made with the Michigan Infra-Red Combiner (MIRC) at the six-telescope Center for High Angular Resolution

Spectroscopic evidence for a large spot on the dimming Betelgeuse

Spectroscopic studies of Betelgeuse using high-resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio near-infrared spectra obtained at Weihai Observatory covering the phases of during and after dimming show that the dimming episode is caused by the dropping of its effective temperature by at least 170 K on 2020 January 31, that can be attributed to the emergence of a large dark spot on the surface of the star.

Precision Analysis of Evolved Stars

Evolved stars dominate galactic spectra, enrich the galactic medium, expand to change their planetary systems, eject winds of a complex nature, produce spectacular nebulae and illuminate them, and

Staring at stars makes you see spots: verifying images of red supergiant stars

As some of the largest stars in diameter, red supergiants (RSGs) are ideal targets for interferometric imaging. In the past few years, studies have begun to shed light on the evolution of the

Red Supergiants, Yellow Hypergiants, and Post-RSG Evolution

How massive stars end their lives remains an open question in the field of star evolution. While the majority of stars above ≳9 M ⊙ will become red supergiants (RSGs), the terminal state of these



Vigorous atmospheric motion in the red supergiant star Antares

The two-dimensional velocity field map obtained from the near-infrared spectro-interferometric imaging reveals vigorous upwelling and downdrafting motions of several huge gas clumps at velocities ranging from about −20 to +20 kilometres per second in the atmosphere, which extends out to about 1.7 stellar radii.

The close circumstellar environment of Betelgeuse - IV. VLTI/PIONIER interferometric monitoring of the photosphere

Context. The mass-loss mechanism of cool massive evolved stars is poorly understood. The proximity of Betelgeuse makes it an appealing target to study its atmosphere, map the shape of its envelope,

The inhomogeneous submillimeter atmosphere of Betelgeuse

The mechanisms responsible for heating the extended atmospheres of early-M spectral-type supergiants are poorly understood. So too is the subsequent role these mechanisms play in driving the large

Atmospheric dynamics and the mass loss process in red supergiant stars

Context. Red supergiant stars represent a key phase in the evolution of massive stars. Recent radiative hydrodynamic simulations suggest that their atmospheres may be the location of large-scale

Multi-epoch VLTI-PIONIER imaging of the supergiant V766 Cen

The star V766 Cen (=HR 5171A) was originally classified as a yellow hypergiant but lately found to more likely be a 27-36 Msun red supergiant (RSG). Recent observations indicated a close eclipsing

Radiative hydrodynamic simulations of red supergiant stars - III. Spectro-photocentric variability, photometric variability, and consequences on Gaia measurements

Context. It has been shown that convection in red supergiant stars (RSG) gives rise to large granules that cause surface inhomogeneities and shock waves in the photosphere. The resulting motion of

Radiative hydrodynamics simulations of red supergiant stars - II. Simulations of convection on Betelgeuse match interferometric observations

Context. The red supergiant (RSG) Betelgeuse is an irregular variable star. Convection may play an important role in understanding this variability. Interferometric observations can be interpreted

High spectral resolution imaging of the dynamical atmosphere of the red supergiant Antares in the CO first overtone lines with VLTI/AMBER

Aims. We present aperture-synthesis imaging of the red supergiant Antares (α Sco) in the CO first overtone lines. Our goal is to probe the structure and dynamics of the outer atmosphere. Methods.


Spectroscopic observations of Betelgeuse, taken at the Elginfield Observatory, show velocity and temperature variations delineating the systematic, but generally chaotic, rise and fall of