In neurons, the regulation of microtubules plays an important role for neurite outgrowth, axonal elongation, and growth cone steering. SCG10 family proteins are the only known neuronal proteins that have a strong destabilizing effect, are highly enriched in growth cones and are thought to play an important role during axonal elongation. MAP1B, a microtubule-stabilizing protein, is found in growth cones as well, therefore it was important to test their effect on microtubules in the presence of both proteins. We used recombinant proteins in microtubule assembly assays and in transfected COS-7 cells to analyze their combined effects in vitro and in living cells, respectively. Individually, both proteins showed their expected activities in microtubule stabilization and destruction respectively. In MAP1B/SCG10 double-transfected cells, MAP1B could not protect microtubules from SCG10-induced disassembly in most cells, in particular not in cells that contained high levels of SCG10. This suggests that SCG10 is more potent to destabilize microtubules than MAP1B to rescue them. In microtubule assembly assays, MAP1B promoted microtubule formation at a ratio of 1 MAP1B per 70 tubulin dimers while a ratio of 1 SCG10 per two tubulin dimers was needed to destroy microtubules. In addition to its known binding to tubulin dimers, SCG10 binds also to purified microtubules in growth cones of dorsal root ganglion neurons in culture. In conclusion, neuronal microtubules are regulated by antagonistic effects of MAP1B and SCG10 and a fine tuning of the balance of these proteins may be critical for the regulation of microtubule dynamics in growth cones.