Arthroscopic shoulder stabilization Differential treatment strategy with Suretac, Fastak, holmium: YAG laser and electrosurgery
The purpose of this study was to investigate the ligamentous stabilizing mechanisms preventing anterior instability in the glenohumeral joint. Six freshly thawed, unembalmed cadaveric shoulders were dissected, preserving the joint capsule and glenohumeral ligaments, the coracohumeral ligament, and the subscapularis tendon. Hall-effect strain transducers were placed on the superior, middle, and inferior glenohumeral ligaments. The humerus and scapula were fixed in a specifically designed mounting apparatus that allowed the glenohumeral joint to be placed in 0 degree, 45 degrees, or 90 degrees of abduction. The mounting apparatus was placed in a model TTC Instron Universal Testing Instrument, which applied an external rotation torque to the humerus. Strain produced in the three glenohumeral ligaments was recorded on a three-channel X-Y chart recorder. At 0 degree of abduction, the superior and middle glenohumeral ligaments developed the most strain. At 45 degrees of abduction, the inferior and middle glenohumeral ligaments developed the most strain, with considerable strain also being developed in the superior glenohumeral ligament. At 90 degrees of abduction, the inferior glenohumeral ligament developed the most strain, with strain also seen in the middle glenohumeral ligament.