The confidence-accuracy relationship for eyewitness identification decisions: Effects of exposure duration, retention interval, and divided attention.

@article{Palmer2013TheCR,
  title={The confidence-accuracy relationship for eyewitness identification decisions: Effects of exposure duration, retention interval, and divided attention.},
  author={Matthew A. Palmer and Neil Brewer and Nathan Weber and Ambika Nagesh},
  journal={Journal of experimental psychology. Applied},
  year={2013},
  volume={19 1},
  pages={
          55-71
        }
}
Prior research points to a meaningful confidence-accuracy (CA) relationship for positive identification decisions. However, there are theoretical grounds for expecting that different aspects of the CA relationship (calibration, resolution, and over/underconfidence) might be undermined in some circumstances. This research investigated whether the CA relationship for eyewitness identification decisions is affected by three, forensically relevant variables: exposure duration, retention interval… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

The effect of viewing distance on empirical discriminability and the confidence–accuracy relationship for eyewitness identification
The distance from which an eyewitness views a perpetrator is a critical factor for eyewitness identification, but has received little research attention. We presented three mock-crime videos to
Investigating the ease-of-retrieval effect in an eyewitness context
TLDR
In three of the four studies, ease-of-retrieval had the expected effect on participants’ perceived task difficulty; however, frequentist and Bayesian testing showed no evidence for an effect on confidence or assertiveness ratings.
Marijuana Impairs the Accuracy of Eyewitness Memory and the Confidence–Accuracy Relationship Too
Confidence of Older Eyewitnesses: Is It Diagnostic of Identification Accuracy?
Abstract Since the late 1980s evidence has been accumulating that confidence recorded at the time of identification is a reliable postdictor of eyewitness identification. Nonetheless, there may be
Elevated stress impairs the accuracy of eyewitness memory but not the confidence-accuracy relationship.
TLDR
The results of this study suggest that confidence is a better predictor of recognition-memory accuracy than is stress even though confidence alone is still an imperfect predictor.
The effects of repeated lineups and delay on eyewitness identification
TLDR
It is found that both repeated lineups and increasing delays can influence people’s tendency to choose and their willingness to maintain their decisions, regardless of accuracy, and strong relations between confidence and accuracy when using confidence-accuracy characteristic plots are obtained.
Initial eyewitness confidence reliably predicts eyewitness identification accuracy.
TLDR
A considerable body of recent empirical work suggests that confidence may be a highly reliable indicator of accuracy at that time, which fits with longstanding theoretical models of recognition memory.
ROC curve analyses of eyewitness identification decisions: An analysis of the recent debate
TLDR
Simulations of different possible identification tasks and response strategies show that ROCs are an essential tool for distinguishing memory-based processes from decisional aspects of a response; they offer important constraints on theory development.
Roc Analyses of Eyewitness Identification Decisions: an Analysis of the Recent Debate
How should the accuracy of eyewitness identification decisions be measured, so that best practices for identification can be determined? This fundamental question is under intense debate. One side
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 85 REFERENCES
The Effect of Retention Interval on the Confidence–Accuracy Relationship for Eyewitness Identification
TLDR
Research on the boundary conditions of the confidence–accuracy relationship was extended by varying the retention interval between encoding and identification test by finding that for choosers at both retention intervals there was a meaningful CA relationship and diagnosticity was much stronger at high than low confidence levels.
The confidence-accuracy relationship in eyewitness identification: the effects of reflection and disconfirmation on correlation and calibration.
TLDR
Confidence-accuracy correlations were weak and did not differ across conditions, however, for positive identifications, confidence and accuracy were well calibrated in the experimental conditions, although not in the control condition.
Exposure duration: effects on eyewitness accuracy and confidence.
TLDR
The relationship between the length of exposure to a face in an eyewitness setting and identification accuracy and confidence and the confidence ratings of accurate and inaccurate witnesses did not differ.
The confidence-accuracy relationship in eyewitness identification: effects of lineup instructions, foil similarity, and target-absent base rates.
TLDR
Investigating whether eyewitness confidence assists decisions under a variety of conditions using a confidence-accuracy (CA) calibration approach indicates that confidence assessments obtained immediately after a positive identification can provide a useful guide for investigators about the likely accuracy of an identification.
Children's metacognitive judgments in an eyewitness identification task.
Fast and confident: postdicting eyewitness identification accuracy in a field study.
TLDR
The combined postdictive value of postdecision confidence, decision time, and Remember-Know-Familiar judgments as markers of identification accuracy was evaluated with 10 targets and 720 participants and there were no significant differences with regard to identification performance across nonchooser groups.
The reliability of eyewitness identification
This study examines the effects of 14 estimator variables (e.g., disguise of robber, exposure time, weapon visibility) and system variables (e.g., lineup instructions, exposure to mugshots) on a
Eyewitness accuracy and confidence
In deciding the trustworthiness of eyewitness testimony, the U.S. judiciary employs as one of five criteria the witness' level of confidence demonstrated at the confrontation. A very recent
Can People Detect Eyewitness-Identification Accuracy Within and Across Situations?
Thefts were staged 108 times for as many witnesses who were subsequently given a photo lineup for identifying the thief. The thefts were staged under conditions designed to yield low (33%), moderate
...
...