The composition of animal cells: solutes contributing to osmotic pressure and charge balance.

The cytoplasmic solutes of vertebrates and invertebrates, other than Na, K and Cl, are surveyed in relation to their influence on ionic regulation through osmolality and charge balance. The most abundant include MgATP, phosphagens, amino acids, various other nitrogen and phosphorus compounds and sometimes anaerobic end products and antifreeze agents… CONTINUE READING