The complex dynamics of wishful thinking: the critical positivity ratio.

  title={The complex dynamics of wishful thinking: the critical positivity ratio.},
  author={Nicholas J. L. Brown and Alan D. Sokal and Harris L. Friedman},
  journal={The American psychologist},
  volume={68 9},
We examine critically the claims made by Fredrickson and Losada (2005) concerning the construct known as the "positivity ratio." We find no theoretical or empirical justification for the use of differential equations drawn from fluid dynamics, a subfield of physics, to describe changes in human emotions over time; furthermore, we demonstrate that the purported application of these equations contains numerous fundamental conceptual and mathematical errors. The lack of relevance of these… 

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