The complex architecture of oxygenic photosynthesis

  title={The complex architecture of oxygenic photosynthesis},
  author={Nathan Nelson and Adam Ben-Shem},
  journal={Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology},
Oxygenic photosynthesis is the principal producer of both oxygen and organic matter on earth. The primary step in this process — the conversion of sunlight into chemical energy — is driven by four, multisubunit, membrane-protein complexes that are known as photosystem I, photosystem II, cytochrome b6f and F-ATPase. Structural insights into these complexes are now providing a framework for the exploration not only of energy and electron transfer, but also of the evolutionary forces that shaped… 
Oxygenic Photosynthesis—A Brief Overview
Oxygenic photosynthesis is the process in which oxygen and carbohydrates are produced from water and carbon dioxide utilizing sunlight. With the ability of converting solar energy into chemical
The structure of photosystem I and evolution of photosynthesis
  • N. NelsonA. Ben-Shem
  • Chemistry
    BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology
  • 2005
The available structural information complements the knowledge gained from genomic and proteomic data to illustrate a more precise scenario for the evolution of life systems on earth.
The Plasticity of Photosystem I.
New structural and functional insights into PSI and associated light-harvesting proteins are described, with a focus on the plasticity of PSI.
Structure and function of photosystems I and II.
The new structures of PSI and PSII from cyanobacteria, algae, and plants has shed light not only on the architecture and mechanism of action of these intricate membrane complexes, but also on the evolutionary forces that shaped oxygenic photosynthesis.
The basic principles of solar energy capture, energy, electron and proton transfer and the biochemical basis of carbon fixation are explained and their significance is discussed.
The Diversity of Photosynthetic Cytochromes
This chapter explores the myriad of cytochromes involved in the photosynthetic process that generates the most energy and oxygen on Earth. All photosynthetic organisms rely on cytochromes to move
Chlorophyll-Based Generators of Proton Potential
The light-induced stages of chlorophyll-dependent photosynthesis are described. The main principles of photon energy transformation by living organisms are explained. The light-driven cyclic redox
Molecular mechanism of photosystem I assembly in oxygenic organisms.
Plant photosystem I design in the light of evolution.
Structure and energy transfer in photosystems of oxygenic photosynthesis.
The crystal structure determination of photosynthetic protein complexes sheds light on the various partial reactions and explains how they are protected against wasteful pathways and why their function is robust.


Crystal structure of plant photosystem I
The crystal structure of the complete photosystem I (PSI) is determined from a higher plant to 4.4 Å resolution and provides a framework for exploration not only of energy and electron transfer but also of the evolutionary forces that shaped the photosynthetic apparatus of terrestrial plants after the divergence of chloroplasts from marine cyanobacteria one billion years ago.
Three-dimensional structure of cyanobacterial photosystem I at 2.5 Å resolution
The structure of photosystem I from the thermophilic cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus described here provides a picture at atomic detail of 12 protein subunits and 127 cofactors comprising 96 chlorophylls, 2 phylloquinones, 3 Fe4S4 clusters, 22 carotenoids, 4 lipids, a putative Ca2+ ion and 201 water molecules.
Architecture of the Photosynthetic Oxygen-Evolving Center
The data strongly suggest that the OEC contains a cubane-like Mn3CaO4 cluster linked to a fourth Mn by a mono-μ-oxo bridge, and the details of the surrounding coordination sphere of the metal cluster and the implications for a possible oxygen-evolving mechanism are discussed.
A metalloradical mechanism for the generation of oxygen from water in photosynthesis.
A model is proposed whereby the tyrosyl radical functions by abstracting hydrogen atoms from substrate water bound as terminal ligands to two of the four manganese ions, establishing clear analogies between photosynthetic water oxidation and amino acid radical function in other enzymatic reactions.
Structure of the Cytochrome b6f Complex of Oxygenic Photosynthesis: Tuning the Cavity
The dimeric b6f complex from the thermophilic cyanobacterium Mastigocladus laminosus reveals a large quinone exchange cavity, stabilized by lipid, in which plastoquinone, a quin one-analog inhibitor, and a novel heme are bound.
Crystal structure of photosystem II from Synechococcus elongatus at 3.8 Å resolution
The X-ray structure of photosystem II is described on the basis of crystals fully active in water oxidation, shows how protein subunits and cofactors are spatially organized and the larger subunits are assigned and the locations and orientations of the cofacters are defined.
Too much of a good thing: light can be bad for photosynthesis.
Atomic model of plant light-harvesting complex by electron crystallography
The structure of the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b–protein complex, an integral membrane protein, has been determined at 3.4 Å resolution by electron crystallography of two-dimensional crystals.
Photosynthetic control of chloroplast gene expression
Here it is shown that the redox state of plastoquinone also controls the rate of transcription of genes encoding reaction-centre apoproteins of photosystem I and photosystem II, and the stoichiometry between the two photosystems changes in a way that counteracts the inefficiency produced when either photosystem limits the rates of the other.
Chloroplast protein phosphorylation couples plastoquinone redox state to distribution of excitation energy between photosystems
In photosynthetic membranes isolated from pea leaves, the redox state of the plastoquinone pool controls both the level of phosphorylation of the chloroplast light-harvesting pigment–protein complex