The comparative psychology of uncertainty monitoring and metacognition.

  title={The comparative psychology of uncertainty monitoring and metacognition.},
  author={J David Smith and Wendy E. Shields and David A. Washburn},
  journal={The Behavioral and brain sciences},
  volume={26 3},
          317-39; discussion 340-73
Researchers have begun to explore animals' capacities for uncertainty monitoring and metacognition. This exploration could extend the study of animal self-awareness and establish the relationship of self-awareness to other-awareness. It could sharpen descriptions of metacognition in the human literature and suggest the earliest roots of metacognition in human development. We summarize research on uncertainty monitoring by humans, monkeys, and a dolphin within perceptual and metamemory tasks. We… 

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