The color of punishment: African Americans, skin tone, and the criminal justice system

@article{Monk2018TheCO,
  title={The color of punishment: African Americans, skin tone, and the criminal justice system},
  author={Ellis P. Monk},
  journal={Ethnic and Racial Studies},
  year={2018},
  volume={42},
  pages={1593 - 1612}
}
  • Ellis P. Monk
  • Published 10 September 2018
  • Law
  • Ethnic and Racial Studies
ABSTRACT Public debate and scholarly research has largely concentrated on the vast array of disparities between blacks and whites in their treatment by and experiences with the criminal justice system. Nevertheless, a growing body of research shows that African Americans’ life chances are internally stratified by gradational differences in their skin tone. This study brings together research on race, color, and the criminal justice system by using nationally-representative data to examine… 

The Future of American Blackness: On Colorism and Racial Reorganization

  • R. Reece
  • Art
    The Review of Black Political Economy
  • 2021
This manuscript leverages the plethora of research on colorism and skin tone stratification among Black Americans to consider how the “Black” racial category may change going forward. I build on

The Unceasing Significance of Colorism: Skin Tone Stratification in the United States

TLDR
In this essay, the trajectory of colorism and skin tone stratification in the United States over the past century is traced and it is argued that future research on colorism will be essential to understand comprehensively the significance of race/ethnicity in a demographically shifting United States.

“They Say We’re Violent”: The Multidimensionality of Race in Perceptions of Police Brutality and BLM

A growing literature demonstrates the importance of both race and skin color in one’s lived experiences, including interactions with police. Media discourse and anti-police brutality movements

Differential Racialization and Police Interactions among Young Adults of Asian Descent

This qualitative study examined how inclusion or exclusion from the boundaries of “Asian-ness” shaped how young adults of Asian origin experienced and navigated police encounters. Respondents’

The Gender of Colorism: Understanding the Intersection of Skin Tone and Gender Inequality

Although researchers have made great strides in understanding colorism and skin tone stratification in the USA, important connections are still outstanding. One of these connections lies at the

Skin-Tone Trauma: Historical and Contemporary Influences on the Health and Interpersonal Outcomes of African Americans

TLDR
A new conceptual model of skin-tone trauma is proposed that depicts how historical and contemporary underpinnings of colorism lead to colorist incidents that may directly and indirectly, by eliciting traumatic stress reactions, lead to negative effects on the health and interpersonal relationships of African Americans.

Racial and Ethnic Identity, Gender, and School Suspension: Heterogeneous Effects Across Hispanic and Caribbean Subgroups

Objectives: This study explores the effects of racial/ethnic identity on youths’ likelihood of receiving a suspension from school as well as whether these disparities further vary by gender. In light

Time, Money, and Punishment: Institutional Racial-Ethnic Inequalities in Pretrial Detention and Case Outcomes

While prior research finds that pretrial detention has downstream consequences for racial inequalities in conviction and sentencing, it is often conceptualized as a discrete event within the criminal

The Most Invisible of the Invisibles: Skin Color and Arab American Political Ideology

This paper explores the role of skin color in shaping Arab Americans’ political attitudes. Previous literature has confirmed the relationship between skin color and social and economic outcomes,

Do White People See Variation in Black Skin Tones? Reexamining a Purported Outgroup Homogeneity Effect

Previous research has reported that white survey interviewers remember black respondents’ skin tones in a much narrower range than recollections by black interviewers. This finding has been used to

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 66 REFERENCES

Skin Color and the Criminal Justice System: Beyond Black‐White Disparities in Sentencing

This article analyzes sentencing outcomes for black and white men in Georgia. The analysis uses sentencing data collected by the Georgia Department of Corrections (GDC). Among first‐time offenders,

Arrested by Skin Color: Evidence from Siblings and a Nationally Representative Sample

Racial disparities in the criminal justice system are striking, but social scientists know little about skin color inequalities within this system. Research demonstrates that racial minorities with

Complicating Colorism: Race, Skin Color, and the Likelihood of Arrest

Both conventional public beliefs and existing academic research on colorism presuppose that variation in skin color predicts social outcomes among minorities but is inconsequential among whites. The

The Malign Effects of Drug and Crime Control Policies on Black Americans

The disproportionate presence of blacks in American prisons, jails, and Death Rows, and the principal reasons for it—higher rates of commission of violent crimes and racially disparate effects of

A Punishing Look: Skin Tone and Afrocentric Features in the Halls of Justice1

TLDR
Investigation of the association between offender’s skin tone, Afrocentric facial features, and criminal punishment in two Minnesota counties indicates that darker skin tone and Afrofocused facial features are associated with harsher sanctions and that the latter effect is particularly salient for white defendants.

The Cost of Color: Skin Color, Discrimination, and Health among African-Americans1

TLDR
The author finds that self-reported skin tone is a stronger predictor of perceived discrimination than interviewer-rated skin tone and highlights the utility of cognitive and multidimensional approaches to ethnoracial and social inequality.

Are Blacks and Hispanics Disproportionately Incarcerated Relative to Their Arrests? Racial and Ethnic Disproportionality Between Arrest and Incarceration

TLDR
There is a need for continued concern with possible racial discrimination in justice system processing, but this concern should not distract attention from what arguably is the more important matter—ameliorating the social environmental conditions that foster disproportionate minority involvement in violent crime.

The Shade of a Criminal Record: Colorism, Incarceration, and External Racial Classification

Recent high-profile research suggests that social indicators like incarceration influence racial categorization. Yet, this research has largely ignored colorism—intraracial differences in skin tone

Shades of Brown: The Law of Skin Color

Because antidiscrimination efforts have focused primarily on race, courts have largely ignored discrimination within racial classifications on the basis of skin color. In this Article, Professor
...