The clinicopathologic spectrum of focal cortical dysplasias: a consensus classification proposed by an ad hoc Task Force of the ILAE Diagnostic Methods Commission.


PURPOSE   Focal cortical dysplasias (FCD) are localized regions of malformed cerebral cortex and are very frequently associated with epilepsy in both children and adults. A broad spectrum of histopathology has been included in the diagnosis of FCD. An ILAE task force proposes an international consensus classification system to better characterize specific clinicopathological FCD entities. METHODS Thirty-two Task Force members have reevaluated available data on electroclinical presentation, imaging, neuropathological examination of surgical specimens as well as postsurgical outcome. KEY FINDINGS The ILAE Task Force proposes a three-tiered classification system. FCD Type I refers to isolated lesions, which present either as radial (FCD Type Ia) or tangential (FCD Type Ib) dyslamination of the neocortex, microscopically identified in one or multiple lobes. FCD Type II is an isolated lesion characterized by cortical dyslamination and dysmorphic neurons without (Type IIa) or with balloon cells (Type IIb). Hence, the major change since a prior classification represents the introduction of FCD Type III, which occurs in combination with hippocampal sclerosis (FCD Type IIIa), or with epilepsy-associated tumors (FCD Type IIIb). FCD Type IIIc is found adjacent to vascular malformations, whereas FCD Type IIId can be diagnosed in association with epileptogenic lesions acquired in early life (i.e., traumatic injury, ischemic injury or encephalitis). SIGNIFICANCE This three-tiered classification system will be an important basis to evaluate imaging, electroclinical features, and postsurgical seizure control as well as to explore underlying molecular pathomechanisms in FCD.

DOI: 10.1111/j.1528-1167.2010.02777.x

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@article{Bluemcke2011TheCS, title={The clinicopathologic spectrum of focal cortical dysplasias: a consensus classification proposed by an ad hoc Task Force of the ILAE Diagnostic Methods Commission.}, author={I. Bluemcke and Maria Thom and E. Aronica and Dawna La-Vina Duncan Armstrong and Harry V . Vinters and Andr{\'e} Lu{\'i}s Fernandes Palmini and Thomas S Jacques and Giuliano Avanzini and A. James Barkovich and Giorgio Battaglia and Albert J. Becker and Carlos Cepeda and Fernando Cendes and Nadia Colombo and Peter B. Crino and J. Helen Cross and Olivier Delalande and François Dubeau and John S. Duncan and Renzo Guerrini and Philippe Kahane and Gary W. Mathern and Imad Najm and Ciğdem Ozkara and Charles A. Raybaud and Alfonso Represa and S. N. Roper and Noriko Salamon and Andreas Schulze-Bonhage and Laura Tassi and Annamaria Vezzani and Roberto Spreafico}, journal={Epilepsia}, year={2011}, volume={52 1}, pages={158-74} }