The clinical toxicology of gamma-hydroxybutyrate, gamma-butyrolactone and 1,4-butanediol

@article{Schep2012TheCT,
  title={The clinical toxicology of gamma-hydroxybutyrate, gamma-butyrolactone and 1,4-butanediol},
  author={Leo J. Schep and Kai Knudsen and Robin J Slaughter and J Allister Vale and Bruno M{\'e}garbane},
  journal={Clinical Toxicology},
  year={2012},
  volume={50},
  pages={458 - 470}
}
Introduction. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its precursors, gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD), are drugs of abuse which act primarily as central nervous system (CNS) depressants. In recent years, the rising recreational use of these drugs has led to an increasing burden upon health care providers. Understanding their toxicity is therefore essential for the successful management of intoxicated patients. We review the epidemiology, mechanisms of toxicity, toxicokinetics… 

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It is suggested that barbiturates could be evaluated as first-choice agents for the treatment of GBL/gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB) withdrawal instead of benzodiazepines.

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Abstract Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a central nervous system depressant primarily used as a recreational drug of abuse, but also for the treatment of narcolepsy with cataplexy in adult patients

Treat γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and γ-butyrolactone (GBL) dependence with benzodiazepines first, then with other approaches if benzodiazepine-resistant

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