The clinical symptoms of Parkinson's disease

  title={The clinical symptoms of Parkinson's disease},
  author={Sigurlaug Sveinbjornsdottir},
  journal={Journal of Neurochemistry},
In this review, the clinical features of Parkinson's disease, both motor and non‐motor, are described in the context of the progression of the disease. Also briefly discussed are the major treatment strategies and their complications. 

Pharmacological Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease

This chapter focuses on the drugs that are currently employed for the treatment of PD, including discussion on their mode of action, clinical utility, and adverse effects, and some interesting emerging approaches that are current under investigation.

Levodopa treatment patterns in Parkinson’s disease: A retrospective chart review

Adverse effects produced by different drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease: A mixed treatment comparison

This mixed treatment comparison is used to compare the adverse effects of eleven different drugs used to treat Parkinson's disease (PD). The drugs that we compare include the following: ropinirole,

Assessments of plasma ghrelin levels in the early stages of parkinson's disease

Assessment of ghrelin levels in the early stages of Parkinson's disease found the hormone was neuroprotective in the nigrostriatal dopamine system and also acted as a “feel-good” hormone in the gut.

Possible therapies of Parkinson’s disease: A review

Respiratory disorders of Parkinson's Disease.

The history of the pathology and data about the respiratory changes in PD obtained thus far will be addressed and the treatment of patients with respiratory symptoms difficult is addressed.

Manage motor fluctuations in Parkinson’s disease by taking a hierarchical approach and individualizing treatment

Treatment for Parkinson’s disease should be individualized based on the efficacy and safety profiles of the intervention, as well as the clinical characteristics and preferences of the patient, and be adjusted as necessary to manage treatment-related adverse events.

Mitochondrial dysfunction and energy changes of black-substance neurons in experimental parkinson's disease in rats and mothors

Although levodopa has significantly improved the quality of life of patients with PD, statistics show that these patients continue to show shorter life expectancies compared to the general population, even with qualified treatment with available symptomatic drugs.

A Stage-Based Approach to Therapy in Parkinson’s Disease

A practical, stage-based guide to pharmacological management of both motor and non-motor symptoms of PD is provided, to help the physician in yielding the best therapeutic strategies for each symptom and condition in patients with PD.



How do patients with parkinsonism present? A clinicopathological study

This research highlights the need to understand more fully the early clinical features of neurodegenerative parkinsonism, which can be subtle and often coexist with autonomic, sensory and psychic symptoms, making accurate early diagnosis challenging.

Pain in Parkinson's disease

The many causes of pain with Parkinson's disease, which include disease complications and primary sensory pain syndromes, are discussed and the treatment options available are evaluated.

Neuropathologic substrates of Parkinson disease dementia

A study was undertaken to examine the neuropathological substrates of cognitive dysfunction and dementia in Parkinson disease (PD).

Autonomic dysfunctions in idiopathic Parkinson's disease

  • W. Jost
  • Medicine
    Journal of Neurology
  • 2003
Most patients with Parkinson's disease experience autonomic dysfunction at some point in the course of their disease, but they are less severe, and they frequently cause troublesome symptoms only in advanced stages of the disease.

Psychosis in Parkinson’s disease

Management of psychosis in PD requires a multidisciplinary approach and some of the newer atypical antipsychotics are effective against psychosis with no significant worsening of PD.

Clinicopathological characteristics of freezing of gait in autopsy‐confirmed Parkinson's disease

Twenty‐five percent to sixty percent of Parkinson's disease patients reportedly have freezing of gait, leading to impaired mobility, falls, and decreased quality of life, and this work analyses for these factors in autopsy‐proven PD patients.

Accuracy of clinical diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease: a clinico-pathological study of 100 cases.

The pathological findings in 100 patients diagnosed prospectively by a group of consultant neurologists as having idiopathic Parkinson's disease are reported, and these observations call into question current concepts of Parkinson's Disease as a single distinct morbid entity.

What contributes to depression in Parkinson's disease?

Regression analysis suggests that depression in Parkinson's disease is more strongly influenced by the patients' perceptions of handicap than by actual disability, and the treatment of depression should therefore be targeted independently of treatment of the motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.

Urinary tract dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease: a review

The urinary dysfunction seen in patients with Parkinson’s disease is discussed and the pathophysiology, important differentials, the investigations and management options for such patients are considered.

Dystonia in parkinson's disease: Clinical and pharmacological features

Neuropharmacological studies performed in 12 patients suggest that off‐period dystonia is genuinely induced by L‐dopa and best relieved by antiparkinsonian agents.