The clinical neurophysiology of the restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movements. Part I: diagnosis, assessment, and characterization

@article{Hening2004TheCN,
  title={The clinical neurophysiology of the restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movements. Part I: diagnosis, assessment, and characterization},
  author={W. Hening},
  journal={Clinical Neurophysiology},
  year={2004},
  volume={115},
  pages={1965-1974}
}
  • W. Hening
  • Published 1 September 2004
  • Medicine
  • Clinical Neurophysiology
The restless legs syndrome
Restless Legs Syndrome: From Pathophysiology to Clinical Diagnosis and Management
TLDR
Augmentation is very common in long-term treatment of RLS which makes prevention and management of augmentation very important for RLS patients, and a combination of different types of medication is effective in preventing and treating augmentation.
Why do restless legs occur at rest?—pathophysiology of neuronal structures in RLS. Neurophysiology of RLS (part 2)
Syndrom neklidných nohou Restless Legs Syndrome
TLDR
Dopaminergic therapy is currently the most effective treatment for this disease, which can lead to disturbances of sleep and an impaired quality of life.
Definition of restless legs syndrome, how to diagnose it, and how to differentiate it from RLS mimics
TLDR
This work recapitulates the definition of RLS as an urge to move focused on the legs (and arms in some patients) and empirical approaches to investigate the independence of the essential criteria “worsening at night” and ”worsens at rest” are reported.
Restless Legs Syndrome
TLDR
Treatment of RLS is usually rewarding, most patients respond robustly to dopamine receptor agonists, but over time, response may lessen, or the patients may develop ‘augmentation’, whereby they have a worsening of symptoms, usually in the form of an earlier onset.
Restless legs syndrome: differential diagnosis and management with rotigotine
TLDR
Four clinical trials demonstrated that this compound is able to improve RLS symptomatology with few and moderate adverse events, and rotigotine has been recommended for approval by the EMEA and is under review by the FDA.
Syndrom neklidných nohou
TLDR
Dopaminergic therapy is currently the most effective treatment for this disease, which can lead to disturbances of sleep and an impaired quality of life.
Evaluation of periodic leg movements and associated transcranial magnetic stimulation parameters in restless legs syndrome
TLDR
The results demonstrate that the duration of the CSP was reduced in patients with RLS, and that dopaminergic treatment normalized this duration, and there was no correlation between the PLM index and CSP duration.
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References

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Restless legs syndrome: A sensorimotor disorder of sleep/ wake motor regulation
  • W. Hening
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Current neurology and neuroscience reports
  • 2002
TLDR
Therapeutically, studies have shown the dopamine agonists to be the most reliable treatment for severe cases, whereas other recent studies have successfully utilized a number of other medications, including levodopa, opioids, and anticonvulsants.
Restless Legs Syndrome: A Review of Clinical and Pathophysiologic Features
  • R. Allen, C. Earley
  • Medicine, Biology
    Journal of clinical neurophysiology : official publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
  • 2001
TLDR
This review of RLS covers history, diagnosis, morbidity of sleep disturbance, relation to periodic limb movements in both sleep and waking, secondary causes, severity assessment methods, phenotypes for possible genetic patterns, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and medical treatmentconsiderations.
Clinical characteristics and frequency of the hereditary restless legs syndrome in a population of 300 patients.
TLDR
It is shown that patients with hereditary RLS may experience an earlier onset of the disease, compared to those of non-hereditary RLS, which was similar in both groups.
Clinical, polysomnographic, and genetic characteristics of restless legs syndrome: A study of 133 patients diagnosed with new standard criteria
TLDR
A strong relationship was found between these complaints and polysomnographic findings; increasing sleep latency and number of awakenings and decreasing sleep efficiency were associated with worsening symptoms.
The treatment of restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder. An American Academy of Sleep Medicine Review.
A task force consisting of six authors reviewed the published literature on the therapy of the restless legs syndrome or periodic limb movements in sleep available in indices through April, 1998.
Pramipexole in restless legs syndrome
TLDR
The aim of this study was to determine pramipexole efficacy on RLS symptoms and motor component by means of the Suggested Immobilization Test (SIT), which was validated in 1998 as a polygraphic test able to identify and score PLMW.
Insight into the pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome
TLDR
The relevance of CNS iron metabolism to the pathophysiology of RLS is discussed and a reduction in brain iron concentration occurs in RLS patients is suggested.
A questionnaire study of 138 patients with restless legs syndrome
TLDR
A telephone survey of their symptomatology found that more than a third of the patients in each group experienced their first symptoms before the age of 20 and in the older age-onset patients, misdiagnoses also included skin irritation, arthritis, and malingering.
Endocrine rhythms in patients with restless legs syndrome
TLDR
It is suggested that a possible dysfunction of the dopaminergic system in RLS does not affect the release of prolactin and hGH from the pituitary gland.
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