Field Hockey Better Psychological Effect through the Motivation and Stress
- Boggiti Rajesh Jayaratnam
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) poses major management problems for clinicians caring for patients with haematological diseases. The clinical courses of patients with IPA who had been hospitalised in Hematology Unit, Bone Marrow Transplantation Unit and Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology Unit between 1998 and 2005, the efficacy and adverse effects and costs of antifungal drugs (conventional amphotericin B deoxycholate, liposomal amphotericin B, amphotericin B lipid complex and caspofungin) used in the therapy of these patients were analysed in this study. Ninety-three patients with IPA were reviewed retrospectively. Mean age of the patients was 40.4 +/- 15.1 years (range 14-70 years). Fifty-eight male patients and 35 female patients were included in the study. Manageable hypopotassemia, nausea/vomiting and headache were the most commonly observed side-effects during antifungal (AF) therapy. While it was not found to be statistically significant with regard to the mean time to resolution of fever (P = 0.8), it was found to be statistically significant with regard to radiological regression at 30th day, and mean duration of therapy between patients who were dead or alive (P < 0.05, P < 0.001). Total cost of AF therapy for 93 patients was found to be US$4 461 824 (minimum US$387-maximum US$279 023). Of this amount, US$4 272 845 represents the payment for AF drugs, US$188 979 the payment for other expenditures. Mean cost of therapy for a patient with IPA was found to be US$49 336. Although it seemed to be difficult, investigations should primarily focus on providing standardisation of parameters relating to the duration of AF therapy. Despite the less-than-optimal safety profile of CAB, it often remains to be the preferred first line option for the treatment of fungal infections because of its broad spectrum, activity and low acquisition cost.