The cleistogamous breeding system: A review of its frequency, evolution, and ecology in angiosperms

  title={The cleistogamous breeding system: A review of its frequency, evolution, and ecology in angiosperms},
  author={Theresa M. Culley and Matthew R. Klooster},
  journal={The Botanical Review},
Cleistogamy, a breeding system in which permanently closed, self-pollinated flowers are produced, has received increasing attention in recent years, but the last comprehensive review of this system was over 20 years ago. The goal of this paper is to clarify the different types of cleistogamy, quantify the number of families, genera, and species in which cleistogamy occurs, and estimate the number of times and potential reasons why cleistogamy has evolved within angiosperms. Cleistogamous… 
Plasticity in the reproductive strategy of a clonal cleistogamous species, Pseudostellaria heterophylla
The plasticity of reproductive strategies observed in P. heterophylla is proposed to be due to changes in the resource pool and resource allocation, and chasmogamous flower production in an individual plant was found to have little influence on its subsequent clonal propagation.
Molecular biology of flower development in Viola pubescens , a species with the chasmogamous-cleistogamous mixed breeding system
The research presented here examined the molecular biology of flower development in a widespread North American violet, Viola pubescens, and found differential expression patterns of the ABCE floral genes between the chasmogamous and cleistogamous flowers were consistent with their morphological differences.
From herkogamy to cleistogamy--development of cleistogamy in periwinkle.
Cleistogamy in periwinkle would facilitate in ensuring genetic purity, pollen containment, and seed production even in the absence of pollinators, and appears to be the first report on the development of cleistogamous plants in an allogamous species.
Is plasticity across seasons adaptive in the annual cleistogamous plant Lamium amplexicaule?
It is proposed that adaptive plasticity of cleistogamy could be driven by pollination environment variation, with CL flowers providing reproductive assurance when pollinators are scarce and CH flowers reducing the inbreeding depression in offspring whenpollinators are abundant.
Reproductive plasticity in two subspecies of a cleistogamous plant, Triodanis perfoliata
The results did not support the hypothesis that plasticity allowed the divergence of these two subspecies, but the finding of plasticity in chasmogamous flower production could provide insights into the maintenance of cleistogamy in Triodanis perfoliata.
Pollination Ecology of the Manicaria saccifera (ARECACEAE): A Rare Case of Pollinator Exclusion
Having one exclusive pollinator which in turn depends on the palm for its survival is an example of extreme specialization and mutual dependence.
Genetic Structure and Outcrossing Rates in Viola pedunculata (Violaceae), a California Endemic Violet Lacking Cleistogamous Flowers
Overall, these results are consistent with substantial outcrossing occurring in V. pedunculata through CH flowers, leading to gene flow among populations and potentially counteracting effects of genetic drift.
The potential role of two LEAFY orthologs in the chasmogamous/cleistogamous mixed breeding system of Viola pubescens (Violaceae)1
The results suggest that VpLFY1 and V pLFY2 function together in flower development of V. pubescens, and indicate that the two orthologs may have unique, gene-specific properties that might contribute to the flower type in violets.
Induced cleistogamy: A strategy for reproductive assurance in Murdannia nudiflora (Commelinaceae)
Murdannia nudiflora (L.) Brenan is a day flower that is dependent on entomophilous pollination. Despite the lack of pollinator attractants and its short flower longevity, M. nudiflora shows high


Breeding system in the cleistogamous species Centaurea melitensis (Asteraceae)
Comparative analysis of cleistogamous and chasmogamous flower heads produced by Centaurea melitensis was based on studies of the morphological features of floral capitula, fruit production, pollen/ovule ratio, pollinators, stigma receptivity, and pollen-tube growth in the absence of pollinators.
Cleistogamy: A tool for the study of floral morphogenesis, function and evolution
  • E. Lord
  • Biology
    The Botanical Review
  • 2008
Evidence is presented to show that the CL flowers have modifications in their development which ensure self pollination, and a proposal is made for using this phenomenon of dimorphic flower production as a system for the study of floral morphogenesis, function and evolution.
The selection of cleistogamy and heteromorphic diaspores
A ‘near and far dispersal’ model addresses the question of the evolution of dual modes of dispersal, which occur in some cleistogamy and non-cleistogamous plants.
Why is cleistogamy a selected reproductive strategy in Impatiens capensis (Balsaminaceae)
A novel hypothesis is presented that cleistogamy could be a means by which inbred lines are created and maintained in natural populations; these lines would continuously experience self-improvement via natural selection and via crosses among lines at the chasmogamous flowers to benefit the populations.
Flower variation and breeding systems in theCistaceae
  • J. Herrera
  • Environmental Science
    Plant Systematics and Evolution
  • 2004
Fourteen common southern Spanish species in the Cistaceae were examined for quantitative variations in floral traits, including the diameter of the corolla, number and size of anthers, number of ovules, and the size and shape of the gynoecium, which revealed substantial variations in the breeding system.
Reproductive ecology of a cleistogamous annual,Impatiens noli-tangere L., occurring under different environmental conditions
It is suggested that facultative cleistogamy is a conditional strategy under seasonally changing environments and genetic differentiation among populations of this species is suggested.
It is suggested that cleistogamy is important in the reproductive isolation of the numerous, closely related subspecific taxa of Andropogon, and the latter a good measure of pollen-ovule ratios in the singlestamened flowers of this group.
Distribution of Dimorphic Flowers as Related to Other Elements of the Reproductive Strategy
Flower and fruit dimorphisms represent a specialized or multiple reproductive strategy, with division of labour or alternative functions, in order to guarantee seed formation and dispersal even under stress.
Populations from mountain sites, disturbed sites, and non-woodland sites produced higher percentages of cleistogamous flowers than did populations from piedmont, undisturbed, and woodland sites, respectively, and grazing may favor increased Cleistogamy because cleistOGamous flowers are produced lower on the plant.
Monomorphism, reduced gene flow, and cleistogamy in rare and common species of Lespedeza (Fabaceae)
Allozyme data suggest that the level of gene flow among populations of L. capitata is very low, and that very low levels of outcrossing are effected by the chasmogamous flowers in L.capata.