The cleistogamous breeding system: A review of its frequency, evolution, and ecology in angiosperms

@article{Culley2008TheCB,
  title={The cleistogamous breeding system: A review of its frequency, evolution, and ecology in angiosperms},
  author={Theresa M. Culley and Matthew R. Klooster},
  journal={The Botanical Review},
  year={2008},
  volume={73},
  pages={1-30}
}
Cleistogamy, a breeding system in which permanently closed, self-pollinated flowers are produced, has received increasing attention in recent years, but the last comprehensive review of this system was over 20 years ago. The goal of this paper is to clarify the different types of cleistogamy, quantify the number of families, genera, and species in which cleistogamy occurs, and estimate the number of times and potential reasons why cleistogamy has evolved within angiosperms. Cleistogamous… 
Plasticity in the reproductive strategy of a clonal cleistogamous species, Pseudostellaria heterophylla
TLDR
The plasticity of reproductive strategies observed in P. heterophylla is proposed to be due to changes in the resource pool and resource allocation, and chasmogamous flower production in an individual plant was found to have little influence on its subsequent clonal propagation.
Molecular biology of flower development in Viola pubescens , a species with the chasmogamous-cleistogamous mixed breeding system
TLDR
The research presented here examined the molecular biology of flower development in a widespread North American violet, Viola pubescens, and found differential expression patterns of the ABCE floral genes between the chasmogamous and cleistogamous flowers were consistent with their morphological differences.
From herkogamy to cleistogamy--development of cleistogamy in periwinkle.
TLDR
Cleistogamy in periwinkle would facilitate in ensuring genetic purity, pollen containment, and seed production even in the absence of pollinators, and appears to be the first report on the development of cleistogamous plants in an allogamous species.
Is plasticity across seasons adaptive in the annual cleistogamous plant Lamium amplexicaule?
TLDR
It is proposed that adaptive plasticity of cleistogamy could be driven by pollination environment variation, with CL flowers providing reproductive assurance when pollinators are scarce and CH flowers reducing the inbreeding depression in offspring whenpollinators are abundant.
Reproductive plasticity in two subspecies of a cleistogamous plant, Triodanis perfoliata
TLDR
The results did not support the hypothesis that plasticity allowed the divergence of these two subspecies, but the finding of plasticity in chasmogamous flower production could provide insights into the maintenance of cleistogamy in Triodanis perfoliata.
Pollination Ecology of the Manicaria saccifera (ARECACEAE): A Rare Case of Pollinator Exclusion
TLDR
Having one exclusive pollinator which in turn depends on the palm for its survival is an example of extreme specialization and mutual dependence.
Genetic Structure and Outcrossing Rates in Viola pedunculata (Violaceae), a California Endemic Violet Lacking Cleistogamous Flowers
TLDR
Overall, these results are consistent with substantial outcrossing occurring in V. pedunculata through CH flowers, leading to gene flow among populations and potentially counteracting effects of genetic drift.
The potential role of two LEAFY orthologs in the chasmogamous/cleistogamous mixed breeding system of Viola pubescens (Violaceae)1
TLDR
The results suggest that VpLFY1 and V pLFY2 function together in flower development of V. pubescens, and indicate that the two orthologs may have unique, gene-specific properties that might contribute to the flower type in violets.
Induced cleistogamy: A strategy for reproductive assurance in Murdannia nudiflora (Commelinaceae)
Murdannia nudiflora (L.) Brenan is a day flower that is dependent on entomophilous pollination. Despite the lack of pollinator attractants and its short flower longevity, M. nudiflora shows high
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