The classification and labeling of nonhomosexual gender dysphorias

  title={The classification and labeling of nonhomosexual gender dysphorias},
  author={Ray Blanchard},
  journal={Archives of Sexual Behavior},
  • R. Blanchard
  • Published 1 August 1989
  • Psychology
  • Archives of Sexual Behavior
This report suggests systematic strategies for the descriptive classification of nonhomosexual gender identity disorders, based on clinical observations and research findings. The classification of biological males is considered first. A review of cross-gender taxonomies shows that previous observers have identified and labeled a homosexual type far more consistently than any other category of male gender dysphoric. It is suggested that the apparent difficulty in differentiating reliably among… 

Varieties of autogynephilia and their relationship to gender dysphoria

The relationship between gender dysphoria and autogynephilia (erotic arousal in men associated with the thought or image of themselves as women) was investigated and the results support the hypothesis that those nonhomosexual men most aroused sexually by the thought of having a woman's body are also those most interested in acquiring a women's body through some permanent, physical transformation.

Psychological Characteristics and Sexuality of Natal Males with Gender Dysphoria

The psychological characteristics of individuals with gender dysphoria have recently been under scrutiny in the discussions regarding the latest Standards of Care (SOC7) of the World Professional

Transsexual subtypes: Clinical and theoretical significance


The main topic of this paper refers to the evolution of the autogynephilia concept, which most prominent authors within the field elaborate as a type of male paraphillic tendency of a person to be sexually by the idea of a phantasy or an image of oneself as a woman, naming these persons "nonhomosexual transsexuals" or "autogynephilic transsexuals".

"There Is Nothing to Do About It": Nonbinary Individuals' Experience of Gender Dysphoria.

The findings of this study suggest that nonbinary transindividuals experience gender dysphoria in unique ways, and highlight the need to develop clinical assessments ofGender dysphoria that reflect nonbinary experience, and to outline explicit medical protocols for interventions tailored to achieve a desired outcome of physical androgyny.

On gender dysphoria

Gender identity refers to an innate and deeply felt psychological identification as a female, male, or some other non-binary gender. Gender identity may be congruent or incongruent with the sex

The types of heterosexual gender identity disorder

The rationale for dividing the clinical spectrum of DSM-III-R male heterosexual gender identity disorder into three types was examined. The DSM-III-R category of fetishism for female attire, was

Gender Dysphoria

  • Eric J. Yarbrough
  • Psychology
    The American Psychiatric Association Publishing Textbook of Psychiatry
  • 2019
The term Gender Dysphoria is one of the subjects that have a psychological, social and medical dimensions at the same time, and this is gaining a special character in the field of scientific research

Early History of the Concept of Autogynephilia

The writer’s research on the taxonomy of gender identity disorders in biological males suggested that heterosexual, asexual, and bisexual transsexuals are more similar to each other—and to transvestites—than any of them is to the homosexual type, and that the common feature in transvestite and the three types of non-homosexual transsexuals is a history of erotic arousal.

Autogynephilia and the typology of male-to-female transsexualism: Concepts and controversies.

Abstract. Sexual scientists have recognized for over a century that biologic males who seek sex reassignment – male-to-female (MtF) transsexuals – are not a homogeneous clinical population but



The concept of autogynephilia and the typology of male gender dysphoria.

  • R. Blanchard
  • Psychology
    The Journal of nervous and mental disease
  • 1989
The hypothesis that the major types of nonhomosexual gender dysphoria constitute variant forms of one underlying disorder, which may be characterized as autogynephilicGender dysphoria is supported.

Female transsexualism: Part II

  • I. Pauly
  • Psychology
    Archives of sexual behavior
  • 1974
The study of such extreme examples of gender misidentification has already led to insight and further understanding of the normal process of gender identification and parents ought to be made more aware of the need to positively reinforce all infants for those gender characteristics which are consistent with their biological sex.

Two Clinically Discrete Syndromes of Transsexualism

It was found that those who had experienced fetishistic arousal were significantly more likely to be older, to have experienced heterosexual intercourse, to be married and to show penile responses to pictures of men and women indicative of a more heterosexual orientation.

Typology of male-to-female transsexualism

The findings support the view that male transsexuals may be divided into two basic types: heterosexual and homosexual.

Heterosexual and homosexual gender dysphoria

Why more males than females complain of dissatisfaction with their anatomical sex (gender dysphoria) is investigated, and it is suggested that males are differentially susceptible to one of the predisposing conditions, namely, fetishistic transvestism.

A typology of transsexualism: Gender identity theory and data

  • P. Bentler
  • Psychology
    Archives of sexual behavior
  • 1976
An analysis of postoperative data obtained from 42 male-to-female transsexuals showed them to fall into three distinct categories: homosexual transsexuals, asexualsexuals, and heterosexual transsexuals; an extensive developmental theory is suggested to account for both differences and commonalities.

Cross-Gender Identity in a Broader Context

This chapter is a review of clinical and experimental studies that may suggest questions useful in research on the etiology of cross-gender identity (which is here conceived as an extreme form of

Transsexualism or the gender dysphoria syndromes.

Mental health professionals need to competently perform differential diagnoses of both the gender disorder and the associated psychopathologies, which frequently involves distinctions between subtle forms of psychosis, character pathologies of varying severity, and major developmental problems.

Transvestitism and Trans-sexualism

  • J. Randell
  • Psychology
    The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science
  • 1975
The nature of the condition suggests that transvestite and trans-sexualist individuals are predominantly homosexual in orientation and behaviour, and the following report on 50 such patients offers an opportunity to examine this possibility and the aetiological factors involved in the production of such deviate behaviour.

Social desirability response set and systematic distortion in the self-report of adult male gender patients

This study showed that the “socially desirable” presentation for a heterosexual male gender dysphoric is one that emphasizes traits and behaviors characteristic of “classic” transsexualism, and suggested caution in interpreting the self-report data that have been used in comparing them.