The chemistry of John Dalton's color blindness

  title={The chemistry of John Dalton's color blindness},
  author={David M Hunt and Kanwaljit S. Dulai and James K. Bowmaker and John D. Mollon},
  pages={984 - 988}
John Dalton described his own color blindness in 1794. In common with his brother, he confused scarlet with green and pink with blue. Dalton supposed that his vitreous humor was tinted blue, selectively absorbing longer wavelengths. He instructed that his eyes should be examined after his death, but the examination revealed that the humors were perfectly clear. In experiments presented here, DNA extracted from his preserved eye tissue showed that Dalton was a deuteranope, lacking the middlewave… 
John Dalton: The Recognition of Color Deficiency
John Dalton, famous as the originator of modern atomic theory, was also a seminal contributor to ophthalmology. Near 1794 he realized that his unusual naming of colors was more than semantic, and
John Dalton: Though in Error, He Still Influenced Our Understanding of Congenital Color Deficiency
  • G. Fishman
  • Philosophy, Medicine
    Ophthalmic genetics
  • 2008
John Dalton was born in the 18th century and was recognized mainly for his work on the chemical atomic theory and “Dalton's Law” for the partial pressure of gases. However, during his lifetime he was
Dalton's eyes and monkey genes Recent molecular genetic studies show how changes in the protein component of a visual pigment alters its absorbance; they also explain the abnormal colour vision of one of the great pioneers of visual science.
When we look at an object or scene, it is easy to assume that what we see is what everyone else sees. However, this need not be so. The different complement of visual pigments in the eyes of
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Red-green color blindness is not associated with loss of acuity, although this is present in a rare form of dichromacy called Bornholm eye disease where cone dysfunction and myopia is also present, and the recessive disorder of achromatopsia where all cone classes may be absent.
The color constancy of the red-green color blind
The color constancy of 5 normal and 10 red-green color deficient (4 protanopes, 3 deuteranopes, 3 deuteranomalous trichromats) observers was investigated by an achromatic matching task, in which they
1 – The Origins of Modern Color Science
This chapter discusses the origins of modern colors of science. For the history of color science is as much the history of misconception and insight as it is of experimental refinement. The errors
Color constancy of red-green dichromats and anomalous trichromats.
Despite the evidence of clinical color-vision tests, red-green color-deficient persons are less disadvantaged than might be expected in their judgments of surface colors under different lights.
The handicap of abnormal colour vision
  • B. Cole
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Clinical & experimental optometry
  • 2004
This paper reviews the investigations that have contributed to understanding the nature and consequences of the problems people with abnormal colour vision have and the decisions that have been made to exclude them from employment.
Maxwell, color vision, and the color triangle
Even though James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) is justly famous for his pioneering work on electromagnetism, kinetic theory of gases and thermodynamics (amongst others) he also made fundamental
The Biology of Variations in Mammalian Color Vision
This chapter summarizes work on the linkages between opsin genes, photopigments, and color vision, focusing particular on the issue of primate color vision.


Polymorphism in normal human color vision and its mechanism
Among color normal humans: (1) there are discrete variations in both middle and long wavelength cone pigments, and (2) most individuals have more than three different cone pigment types.
Molecular genetics of human color vision: the genes encoding blue, green, and red pigments.
The isolation and sequencing of genomic and complementary DNA clones that encode the apoproteins of these three pigments are described and the deduced amino acid sequences show 41 +/- 1 percent identity with rhodopsin.
Molecular determinants of human red/green color discrimination
In an extensive mutagenesis study, including a set of 28 chimeric proteins modeled after pigments in the color-deficient human population and an additional 30 single and multiple point mutants, the spectral difference between these 2 pigments is shown to be determined by 7 and only 7 amino acid residues.
Molecular genetics of inherited variation in human color vision.
The hypothesis that red-green "color blindness" is caused by alterations in the genes encoding red and green visual pigments has been tested and shown to be correct. Genomic DNA's from 25 males with
The polymorphic photopigments of the marmoset: spectral tuning and genetic basis.
Within a family group of monkeys, it is found that a restriction site polymorphism in the photopigment gene segregates in a way that is consistent with the single X‐linked gene hypothesis previously proposed on the basis of the photOPigment types present in male and female marmosets.
Polymorphism in red photopigment underlies variation in colour matching
It is reported that a common single amino-acid polymorphism at residue 180 of the X-linked red visual pigment explains the finding of two major groups in the distribution of colour matching among males with normal colour vision.
Spectral tuning of pigments underlying red-green color vision.
Comparisons of the deduced amino acid sequences suggest that three amino acid substitutions produce the approximately 30-nanometer difference in spectral peaks of the pigments underlying human red-green color vision, and red shifts of specific magnitudes are produced by replacement of nonpolar with hydroxyl-bearing amino acids at each of the three critical positions.
Absorption spectra of human cone pigments
A direct determination of the human cone pigment photo-bleaching difference absorption spectra after the production of each cone pigment apoprotein in tissue culture cells transfected with the corresponding complementary complementary DNA clones is reported.
Human visual pigments: microspectrophotometric results from the eyes of seven persons
Both patients were classified as normal trichromats by all clinical tests of colour vision but there was a clear difference in their relative sensitivities to long-wave fields, which proved to be that required by the microspectrophotometric results.
Genotype-phenotype relationships in human red/green color-vision defects: molecular and psychophysical studies.
The relationship between the molecular structure of the X-linked red and green visual pigment genes and color-vision phenotype as ascertained by anomaloscopy was studied in 64 color-defective males and it was found that four subjects who were found to have 5' green-red hybrid genes in addition to normal red- and green-pigment genes had normal color vision as determined by anomalyoscopy.