Distinct cerebellar contributions to intrinsic connectivity networks.
Experimental studies on a variety of mammals, including primates, have revealed direct and reciprocal connections between the hypothalamus and the cerebellum. Although widespread areas of the hypothalamus project to cerebellum, axons arise primarily from cells in the lateral, posterior, and dorsal hypothalamic areas; the supramammillary, tuberomammillary, and lateral mammillary nuclei; the dorsomedial and ventromedial nuclei; and the periventricular zone. Available evidence suggests that hypothalamocerebellar cortical fibers may terminate in relation to neurons in all layers of the cerebellar cortex. Cerebellohypothalamic axons arise from neurons of all four cerebellar nuclei, pass through the superior cerebellar peduncle, cross in its decussation, and enter the hypothalamus. Some axons recross the midline in caudal areas of the hypothalamus. These fibers terminate primarily in lateral, posterior, and dorsal hypothalamic areas and in the dorsomedial and paraventricular nuclei. Evidence of a cerebellar influence on the visceromotor system is presented in two patients with vascular lesions: one with a small defect in the medial cerebellar nucleus and the other with a larger area of damage involving primarily the globose and emboliform nuclei. Both patients exhibited an abnormal visceromotor response. The second, especially, showed abnormal visceromotor activity concurrent with tremor induced by voluntary movement. These experimental and clinical data suggest that the cerebellum is actively involved in the regulation of visceromotor functions.