The causes of cancer: quantitative estimates of avoidable risks of cancer in the United States today.

@article{Doll1981TheCO,
  title={The causes of cancer: quantitative estimates of avoidable risks of cancer in the United States today.},
  author={Richard Doll and Richard Peto},
  journal={Journal of the National Cancer Institute},
  year={1981},
  volume={66 6},
  pages={
          1191-308
        }
}
  • R. Doll, R. Peto
  • Published 1981
  • Medicine
  • Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Evidence that the various common types of cancer are largely avoidable diseases is reviewed. Life-style and other environmental factors are divided into a dozen categories, and for each category the evidence relating those particular factors to cancer onset rates is summarized. Where possible, an estimate is made of the percentage of current U.S. cancer mortality that might have been caused or avoided by that category of factors. These estimates are based chiefly on evidence from epidemiology… Expand

Paper Mentions

Interventional Clinical Trial
There is evidence to suggest that some dietary components can reduce the risk of breast cancer. In this pilot study two such components, isoflavones (compounds found in soy… Expand
ConditionsBreast Cancer Risk
InterventionDietary Supplement
Avoided and avoidable risks of cancer.
Despite the considerable efforts and funds devoted to cancer research over several decades, cancer still remains a mainly lethal disease. Cancer incidence and mortality have not declined at the sameExpand
Diet and breast cancer: an epidemiologist's perspective.
  • L. Hin-Peng
  • Medicine
  • Critical reviews in oncology/hematology
  • 1998
TLDR
Next to tobacco, the other major group of factors implicated in the aetiology of cancer would be dietary in nature, and the impact of some proposed public health dietary measures can be great, if successfully implemented. Expand
Environmental factors in cancer etiology.
TLDR
Perhaps 90% of all human cancer is caused by factors in the environment, and the nature of the factors identified thus far indicates that the authors will obviously never have an environment free of carcinogens. Expand
The causes and prevention of cancer: gaining perspective.
TLDR
Increasing evidence supports the idea that the high frequency of positive results in rodent bioassays is due to testing at the maximum tolerated dose, which frequently can cause chronic cell killing and consequent cell replacement-a risk factor for cancer that can be limited to high doses. Expand
Mechanisms of Carcinogenesis
TLDR
It is estimated that 80%–90% of human cancers result from environmental factors, which includes the direct induction of cancer by exposure to specific chemicals or viruses as well as the modification of cancer risk by dietary factors or reproductive patterns. Expand
Misconceptions about the Causes of Cancer
The major causes of cancer are: 1) smoking, which accounts for 31% of U.S. cancer deaths and 87% of lung cancer deaths; 2) dietary imbalances which account for about another third, e.g., lack ofExpand
Avoidable cancer deaths globally
  • O. Brawley
  • Medicine
  • CA: a cancer journal for clinicians
  • 2011
TLDR
Developing countries have the unique opportunity to avoid millions of smokingrelated cancer deaths by implementing and enforcing comprehensive tobacco control programs, says Jemal et al. Expand
Causes of cancer in the world: comparative risk assessment of nine behavioural and environmental risk factors
TLDR
This report estimates mortality from 12 types of cancer attributable to nine risk factors in seven World Bank regions for 2001 and suggests reduction of exposure to key behavioural and environmental risk factors would prevent a substantial proportion of deaths from cancer. Expand
Prevalence of Factors That Modify the Risk of Cancer in the United States
In the past two decades, we and others have estimated that more than half of cancers could have been prevented by applying knowledge that we already have. Tobacco use, inactivity, and obesity areExpand
The Causes and Prevention of Cancer: The Role of Environment
TLDR
Evidence is shown that the idea that there is an epidemic of human cancer caused by synthetic industrial chemicals is false, and there is a steady rise in life expectancy in the developed countries. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...