The causes of cancer: quantitative estimates of avoidable risks of cancer in the United States today.

@article{Doll1981TheCO,
  title={The causes of cancer: quantitative estimates of avoidable risks of cancer in the United States today.},
  author={Richard Doll and Richard Peto},
  journal={Journal of the National Cancer Institute},
  year={1981},
  volume={66 6},
  pages={
          1191-308
        }
}
  • R. Doll, R. Peto
  • Published 1981
  • Medicine
  • Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Evidence that the various common types of cancer are largely avoidable diseases is reviewed. Life-style and other environmental factors are divided into a dozen categories, and for each category the evidence relating those particular factors to cancer onset rates is summarized. Where possible, an estimate is made of the percentage of current U.S. cancer mortality that might have been caused or avoided by that category of factors. These estimates are based chiefly on evidence from epidemiology… 

Avoided and avoidable risks of cancer.

Despite the considerable efforts and funds devoted to cancer research over several decades, cancer still remains a mainly lethal disease. Cancer incidence and mortality have not declined at the same

Diet and breast cancer: an epidemiologist's perspective.

  • L. Hin-Peng
  • Medicine
    Critical reviews in oncology/hematology
  • 1998

Environmental factors in cancer etiology.

The causes and prevention of cancer: gaining perspective.

TLDR
Increasing evidence supports the idea that the high frequency of positive results in rodent bioassays is due to testing at the maximum tolerated dose, which frequently can cause chronic cell killing and consequent cell replacement-a risk factor for cancer that can be limited to high doses.

Mechanisms of Carcinogenesis

TLDR
It is estimated that 80%–90% of human cancers result from environmental factors, which includes the direct induction of cancer by exposure to specific chemicals or viruses as well as the modification of cancer risk by dietary factors or reproductive patterns.

Avoidable cancer deaths globally

  • O. Brawley
  • Medicine, Political Science
    CA: a cancer journal for clinicians
  • 2011
TLDR
Developing countries have the unique opportunity to avoid millions of smokingrelated cancer deaths by implementing and enforcing comprehensive tobacco control programs, says Jemal et al.

Prevalence of Factors That Modify the Risk of Cancer in the United States

TLDR
Evidence now suggests that vaccination against the human papillomavirus, the use of aspirin and selective estrogen-receptor modulators, and participation in screening programs further reduce the risk of specific cancers.

The Causes and Prevention of Cancer: The Role of Environment

TLDR
Evidence is shown that the idea that there is an epidemic of human cancer caused by synthetic industrial chemicals is false, and there is a steady rise in life expectancy in the developed countries.

The causes of cancer in France.

TLDR
While cancer mortality is decreasing in France, known risk factors of cancer explain only a minority of cancers, with a predominant role of tobacco smoking.
...