The causes and prevention of cancer.

  title={The causes and prevention of cancer.},
  author={Bruce N. Ames and Lois Swirsky Gold and Walter C. Willett},
  journal={Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
  volume={92 12},
  • B. AmesL. GoldW. Willett
  • Published 6 June 1995
  • Medicine
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Epidemiological evidence indicates that avoidance of smoking, increased consumption of fruits and vegetables, and control of infections will have a major effect on reducing rates of cancer. Other factors include avoidance of intense sun exposure, increases in physical activity, and reduction of alcohol consumption and possibly red meat. A substantial reduction in breast cancer is likely to require modification of sex hormone levels, and development of practical methods for doing so is a high… 

The causes and prevention of cancer: gaining perspective.

Increasing evidence supports the idea that the high frequency of positive results in rodent bioassays is due to testing at the maximum tolerated dose, which frequently can cause chronic cell killing and consequent cell replacement-a risk factor for cancer that can be limited to high doses.

The Causes and Prevention of Cancer: The Role of Environment

Evidence is shown that the idea that there is an epidemic of human cancer caused by synthetic industrial chemicals is false, and there is a steady rise in life expectancy in the developed countries.

Prioritization of possible carcinogenic hazards in food

This chapter is prioritization of possible cancer hazards in the diet: reduction of smoking, increased consumption of fruits and vegetables, and control of infections.

Physical Activity and Cancer Prevention

In summary, exercise can alter biological processes that contribute to both antiinitiation and anti-progression events in the carcinogenesis process, and more sophisticated, detailed studies are needed to examine each of the potential mechanisms contributing to an exercise-induced decrease in carcinogenesis.

The prevention of cancer.

There is no epidemic of cancer, except for lung cancer due to smoking, and there is no convincing evidence that synthetic chemical pollutants are important for human cancer.

Environmental Pollution, Pesticides, and the Prevention of Cancer: Misconceptions 1

  • B. AmesL. Gold
  • Biology, Medicine
    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
  • 1997
The major causes of cancer are smoking, which accounts for about a third of U.S. cancer and 90% of lung cancer; dietary imbalances: lack of sufficient amounts of dietary fruits and vegetables; and hormonal factors, influenced primarily by lifestyle.

Role of nutrition in preventing cancer.

Modification of dietary habits to include daily intake of plant-based food containing anticancer and anti-inflammatory phytochemicals thus represents a promising approach to preventing the development of cancer.

Nutrition and cancer.

Evidence is strong that remaining physically active and lean throughout life, consuming an abundance of fruits and vegetables, and avoiding high intakes of red meat, foods high in animal fat, and excessive alcohol will substantially reduce risk of human cancer.

Cancer prevention and diet: help from single nucleotide polymorphisms.

  • B. Ames
  • Medicine, Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1999
The paper by Skibola et al. (1) in this issue of PNAS shows the power of investigating single nucleotide polymorphisms in epidemiological studies to clarify mechanism and risk factors in the difficult, but extremely important, area of diet and the prevention of disease.

Possible mechanisms relating diet and risk of colon cancer.

  • W. R. BruceA. GiaccaA. Medline
  • Medicine, Biology
    Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • 2000
Two recent developments in cancer epidemiology and experimental carcinogenesis provide the basis for two possible mechanisms relating diet and colon cancer risk. The first development is the



Toward the primary prevention of cancer.

This is the threshold of an era when many of the most prevalent human cancers can, to a significant extent, be prevented through life-style changes or medical interventions, and large-scale medical intervention trials are imminent.

Oxidants, antioxidants, and the degenerative diseases of aging.

It is argued that this damage to DNA, protein, and lipid is a major contributor to aging and to degenerative diseases of aging such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, immune-system decline, brain dysfunction, and cataracts.

Fruit, vegetables, and cancer prevention: a review of the epidemiological evidence.

It would appear that major public health benefits could be achieved by substantially increasing consumption of fruit and vegetable consumption, and in particular in cancers of the esophagus, oral cavity, and larynx, for which 28 of 29 studies were significant.

Folate, methionine, and alcohol intake and risk of colorectal adenoma.

Folate, alcohol, and methionine could influence methyl group availability, and a methyl-deficient diet may be linked to early stages of colorectal neoplasia, which supports efforts to increase dietary folate in segments of the population having diets with low intakes of this nutrient.

The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers.

No reduction in the incidence of lung cancer among male smokers is found after five to eight years of dietary supplementation with alpha-tocopherol or beta carotene, and this trial raises the possibility that these supplements may actually have harmful as well as beneficial effects.

Dietary fiber, vegetables, and colon cancer: critical review and meta-analyses of the epidemiologic evidence.

An aggregate assessment of the strength of evidence from 37 observational epidemiologic studies as well as meta-analyses of data from 16 of the 23 case-control studies revealed that the majority of studies gave support for a protective effect associated with fiber-rich diets.

Folate and cancer: a review of the literature.

Findings from animal studies are conflicting and suggest that the effect of folate on neoplasia depends on factors such as the animal and tumor model, the type, timing, dose, and length of application of carcinogen, the stage of carcinogenesis, and the level and form of folates administered.

The causes of cancer: quantitative estimates of avoidable risks of cancer in the United States today.

Evidence that the various common types of cancer are largely avoidable diseases is reviewed, and it is suggested that, apart from cancer of the respiratory tract, the types of cancers that are currently common are not peculiarly modern diseases and are likely to depend chiefly on some long-established factor.

Physical Activity, Obesity, and Risk for Colon Cancer and Adenoma in Men

The hypotheses that physical inactivity, obesity, and height increase the risk for colon cancer and adenoma independently of each other and of diet are addressed, and that the abdominal pattern of obesity is an additional independent risk factor are addressed.

Endogenous hormones as a major factor in human cancer.

It is believed that the primary prevention of all these cancers will probably depend on modification of the factors which affect the secretion and metabolism of the responsible hormones rather than on control of exposure to classical exogenous initiators.