The causes and prevention of cancer: gaining perspective.

  title={The causes and prevention of cancer: gaining perspective.},
  author={B. N. Ames and Lois Swirsky Gold},
  journal={Environmental Health Perspectives},
  pages={865 - 873}
  • B. AmesL. Gold
  • Published 1 June 1997
  • Biology
  • Environmental Health Perspectives
Epidemiological studies have identified several factors that are likely to have a major effect on reducing rates of cancer: reduction of smoking, increased consumption of fruits and vegetables, and control of infections. Other factors include avoidance of intense sun exposure, increased physical activity, and reduced consumption of alcohol and possibly red meat. Risks of many types of cancer can already be reduced, and the potential for further reductions is great. In the United States, cancer… 

Iron Excess and Cancer

The hereditary hemochromatosis gene HFE variants that increase body iron levels are associated with increased cancer risk and lower exposure to environmental iron directly as an important factor to reduce the cancer burden in the industrialized world is emphasized.

No dose–no poison

  • P. Froom
  • Medicine
    Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
  • 2012
It is probable that many more substances would be defined as definite carcinogens if humans were to be exposed to higher doses, and if a large human population drank enough coffee, it could likely be demonstrated that coffee would increase the risk of bladder cancer in humans as well as animals.


  • L. Rushton
  • Medicine
    Occupational and environmental medicine
  • 2003
An overview of environmental causes of cancer and the approaches used in the investigations of this issue is given, the controversies and challenges are discussed, and some of the emerging scientific methodology are outlined.

Review: Coffee drinking: The rationale for treating it as a potential effect modifier of carcinogenic exposures

The study of interactions between caffeine-containing beverages and environmental agents in well defined groups of healthy and diseased people could yield new insights into checkpoint signal transduction and other mechanisms of carcinogenesis.

Carcinogenicity of Pesticides: Is Everything under Control?

  • B. Terracini
  • Biology
    International journal of occupational and environmental health
  • 2002
In the present note, I mainly use information included in the Monographs evaluating cancer risks for humans produced since the early seventies by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (!ARC) of the World Health Organization.

A Data-Based Assessment of Alternative Strategies for Identification of Potential Human Cancer Hazards

Critical questions that should be explored to improve the predictivity of human carcinogenic risk are defined and several endpoints are needed to identify some signals not detected with routine evaluation.

Assessing and evaluating the health impact of environmental exposures

It is estimated that the long-term effects of particulate air pollution appear to account for the greater part of the total environment related health loss in the Netherlands, and provisional calculations of monetarised health loss due to environmental exposures indicate ample opportunities for cost efficient investments in environmental quality from the perspective of public health.

Cancer increased after a reduction of infections in the first half of this century in Italy: Etiologic and preventive implications

Two rate ratios indicating the disappearance of infections and the growth of tumours, respectively, were simultaneously plotted against the calendar years of occurrence in a period during which

Role of Oxidative DNA Damage in Dietary Carcinogenesis

The role of oxidative DNA damage as the common mechanism of dietary carcinogenesis is discussed and it is concluded that polycyclic compounds, such as heterocyclic amines, can cause oxidativeDNA damage, although they appear to mainly form DNA adduct.



The causes and prevention of cancer.

Epidemiological evidence indicates that avoidance of smoking, increased consumption of fruits and vegetables, and control of infections will have a major effect on reducing rates of cancer. Other

Toward the primary prevention of cancer.

This is the threshold of an era when many of the most prevalent human cancers can, to a significant extent, be prevented through life-style changes or medical interventions, and large-scale medical intervention trials are imminent.

Fruit, vegetables, and cancer prevention: a review of the epidemiological evidence.

It would appear that major public health benefits could be achieved by substantially increasing consumption of fruit and vegetable consumption, and in particular in cancers of the esophagus, oral cavity, and larynx, for which 28 of 29 studies were significant.

Diet, nutrition, and avoidable cancer.

  • W. Willett
  • Medicine
    Environmental health perspectives
  • 1995
Considering the more recent evidence, it is roughly estimated that about 32% of cancer may be avoidable by changes in diet; however, it now seems unlikely that less than 20% or more than 42% ofcancer deaths would be avoidability by dietary change.

Dietary intake of fiber and decreased risk of cancers of the colon and rectum: evidence from the combined analysis of 13 case-control studies.

This analysis provides substantive evidence that intake of fiber-rich foods is inversely related to risk of cancers of both the colon and rectum and estimates that risk of colorectal cancer in the U.S. population could be reduced about 31% by an average increase in fiber intake from food sources of about 13 g/d.

Risk factors for fatal colon cancer in a large prospective study.

Recommendations that increased consumption of vegetables and grains may reduce the risk of fatal colon cancer are supported, and regular use of low doses of aspirin may prove to be an important supplemental measure.

Animal Fat Consumption and Prostate Cancer: A Prospective Study in Hawaii

Whereas case-control studies have been very consistent in suggesting a positive association between intake of dietary fat, especially animal fat, and prostate cancer, the results from past cohort

Dietary factors and risk of breast cancer: combined analysis of 12 case-control studies.

A combined analysis of the original data to evaluate the consistency of 12 case-control studies of diet and breast cancer shows a consistent, statistically significant, positive association between breast cancer risk and saturated fat intake in postmenopausal women.

Dietary fiber, vegetables, and colon cancer: critical review and meta-analyses of the epidemiologic evidence.

An aggregate assessment of the strength of evidence from 37 observational epidemiologic studies as well as meta-analyses of data from 16 of the 23 case-control studies revealed that the majority of studies gave support for a protective effect associated with fiber-rich diets.

Antioxidant Prevention of Birth Defects and Cancer

It is argued that damage to DNA and protein by oxidant by-products of normal metabolism is a major contributor to aging, to degenerative diseases of aging, such as cancer, heart disease, cataracts, and brain dysfunction, and to DNA damage in sperm.