The cause of the fragile relationship between the Pacific El Niño and the Atlantic Niño

@article{Chang2006TheCO,
  title={The cause of the fragile relationship between the Pacific El Ni{\~n}o and the Atlantic Ni{\~n}o},
  author={Ping Chang and Yue Fang and Ramalingam Saravanan and Link Ji and Howard F. Seidel},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2006},
  volume={443},
  pages={324-328}
}
El Niño, the most prominent climate fluctuation at seasonal-to-interannual timescales, has long been known to have a remote impact on climate variability in the tropical Atlantic Ocean, but a robust influence is found only in the northern tropical Atlantic region. Fluctuations in the equatorial Atlantic are dominated by the Atlantic Niño, a phenomenon analogous to El Niño, characterized by irregular episodes of anomalous warming during the boreal summer. The Atlantic Niño strongly affects… 
How sensitive are the Pacific–tropical North Atlantic teleconnections to the position and intensity of El Niño-related warming?
The atmospheric teleconnections associated with the Eastern Pacific El Niño and El Niño Modoki events onto the tropical Atlantic Ocean are investigated. The Eastern Pacific El Niños drive significant
On the Inconsistent Relationship between Pacific and Atlantic Niños
The tropical Atlantic wind response to El Nino forcing is robust, with weakened northeast trade winds north of the equator and strengthened southeast trade winds along and south of the equator.
Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies in the Western Indian Ocean as a Trigger for Atlantic Niño Events
Pacific El Niño and Atlantic Niño events represent prominent interannual climate fluctuations in tropical regions. Both of them have considerable impacts on the climate system and human livelihoods.
The Impacts of Inter–El Niño Variability on the Tropical Atlantic and Northeast Brazil Climate
AbstractIn this study, observations and numerical simulations are used to investigate how different El Nino events affect the development of SST anomalies in the Atlantic and how this relates to the
Indian Ocean Dipole leads to Atlantic Niño
TLDR
It is found that the enhanced rainfall in the western tropical Indian Ocean during positive IOD weakens the easterly trade winds over the tropical Atlantic, causing warm anomalies in the central and eastern equatorial Atlantic basin and therefore triggering the Atlantic Niño.
Revisiting ENSO Atmospheric Teleconnections and Challenges
The warming of the equatorial Pacific associated with the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) causes profound impacts on rainfall and temperature in the tropics and extratropics. El Niño drives
Weakening AMOC connects Equatorial Atlantic and Pacific interannual variability
AbstractObservations indicate that since the 1970s Equatorial Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) variations in boreal summer tend to modulate El Niño in the following seasons, indicating that the
Diabatic heating governs the seasonality of the Atlantic Niño
TLDR
It is shown that diabatic heating variability associated with the seasonal migration of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone controls the seasonality of the Atlantic Niño, implying that the oceanic impact on the atmosphere is smaller than previously thought.
Potential of equatorial Atlantic variability to enhance El Niño prediction
Extraordinarily strong El Niño events, such as those of 1982/1983 and 1997/1998, have been poorly predicted by operational seasonal forecasts made before boreal spring, despite significant advances
The Impact of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation and Atlantic Meridional Mode on Seasonal Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Activity
AbstractAtlantic tropical cyclone (TC) activity is influenced by interannual tropical Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) variability characterized by the El Nino–Southern Oscillation (ENSO), as
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 24 REFERENCES
Interaction between Tropical Atlantic Variability and El Niño–Southern Oscillation
Abstract The interaction between tropical Atlantic variability and El Nino–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is investigated using three ensembles of atmospheric general circulation model integrations. The
Interactions of the Tropical Oceans
The authors have investigated the interactions of the tropical oceans on interannual timescales by conducting a series of uncoupled atmospheric and oceanic general circulation experiments and
Remotely forced variability in the tropical Atlantic Ocean
Abstract An ensemble of eight hindcasts has been conducted using an ocean-atmosphere general circulation model fully coupled only within the Atlantic basin, with prescribed observational sea surface
The ENSO Teleconnection to the Tropical Atlantic Ocean: Contributions of the Remote and Local SSTs to Rainfall Variability in the Tropical Americas*
Recent developments in Tropical Atlantic Variability (TAV) identify the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) as one of the leading factors in the interannual climate variability of the basin. An ENSO
The influence of ENSO on air‐sea interaction in the Atlantic
Observations and model experiments are used to investigate the influence of El Niño/the Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on air‐sea interaction in the north Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. In
Tropical tropospheric temperature variations caused by ENSO and their influence on the remote tropical climate
Abstract The warming of the entire tropical free troposphere in response to El Nino is well established, and suggests a tropical mechanism for the El Nino–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) teleconnection.
Tropical Atlantic sea surface temperature variability and its relation to El Niño‐Southern Oscillation
Past analyses of tropical Atlantic sea surface temperature variability have suggested a dipole behavior between the northern and southern tropics, across the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). By
Mechanisms of Remote Tropical Surface Warming during El Niño
Abstract The authors demonstrate through atmospheric general circulation model (the Community Climate Model version 3.10) simulations of the 1997/98 El Nino that the observed “remote” (i.e., outside
Air–Sea Interaction in the Equatorial Atlantic Region
Abstract Using a dynamically motivated analysis of observations, and an intermediate-level coupled model, the interannual variability within the equatorial Atlantic is studied. It is found that a
On the connection between the 1984 Atlantic warm event and the 1982–1983 ENSO
The warm event which spread in the tropical Atlantic during Spring-Summer 1984 is assumed to be partially initiated by atmospheric disturbances, themselves related to the major 1982–1983 El-Nino
...
...