A strategy for direct identification of protein S-nitrosylation sites by quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
Rabbit polyclonal antibody was raised to a chemically synthesized nonapeptide (Trp-Ala-Glu-Trp-Cys-Gly-Pro-Cys-Lys) corresponding to the active-site sequence of Escherichia coli thioredoxin. The antiserum efficiently inhibited thioredoxin activity in the standard thioredoxin reductase/NADPH coupled assay. This inhibition was blocked by preincubation of the antiserum with the nonapeptide. Tight association of the E. coli thioredoxin to the active-site antibody required SDS denaturation. These results suggest that thioredoxin reductase (NADPH: oxidized-thioredoxin oxidoreductase, EC 188.8.131.52) alters the conformation of thioredoxin sufficiently to permit binding to the antibody. The antiserum bound to plant and liver thioredoxins. Bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, whose active site (Gly-Pro-Cys-Lys) is homologous to that of thioredoxin, also competes for the active-site antibody. This result led to experiments showing that thioredoxin can inhibit the digestion of cytochrome c by trypsin. The ability of thioredoxin to act as a trypsin inhibitor analogue provides a rationale for thioredoxin's resistance to digestion by trypsin.