The carrier effect in the secondary response to hapten‐protein conjugates. II. Cellular cooperation

@article{Mitchison1971TheCE,
  title={The carrier effect in the secondary response to hapten‐protein conjugates. II. Cellular cooperation},
  author={Neil Mitchison},
  journal={European Journal of Immunology},
  year={1971},
  volume={1}
}
  • N. Mitchison
  • Published 1971
  • Biology
  • European Journal of Immunology
The adoptive secondary response of mice to conjugates of NIP (4‐hydroxy‐5‐iodo‐3‐nitro‐phenacetyl‐) and DNP (2,4‐dinitrophenyl‐) is here used to elucidate the mechanism of cellular cooperation. The framework into which the experiments fit can be formulated as follows. Priming immunization raises a crop not only of specific antibody‐forming‐cell‐precursors (AFCP) but also of specific helper cells. Upon secondary stimulation the helper cells serve a role as handlers or concentrators of antigen… 
The carrier effect in the secondary response to hapten‐protein conjugates. V. Use of antilymphocyte serum to deplete animals of helper cells
TLDR
If transferred cells are boosted with NIP (4‐hydroxy‐5‐iodo‐3‐nitro‐phenacetyl‐) or DNP (2,4‐dinitrophenyl‐] conjugates of the protein with which they had been primed, their ability to make an anti‐protein response can be partially restored by adding cells primed against the hapten.
The carrier effect in the secondary response to hapten‐protein conjugates. IV. Uptake of antigen in vitro and failure to obtain cooperative induction in vitro
TLDR
Spleen cells from donors primed with bovine serum albumin took up 4‐Hydroxy‐5‐iodo‐3‐nitro‐phenacetyl(NIP)‐BSA in vitro, as judged by their subsequent ability to induce a response to NIP in cooperation with NIP‐ovalbumin‐primed spleen cells.
The carrier effect in the secondary response to hapten‐protein conjugates. III. The anatomical distribution of helper cells and antibody‐forming‐cell‐precursors
TLDR
Findings from the adoptive secondary response of mice to hapten‐protein conjugates are interpreted as support for the hypothesis that helper cells are thymus‐derived, recirculating lymphocytes.
The carrier effect in the secondary response to hapten‐protein conjugates. I. Measurement of the effect with transferred cells and objections to the local environment hypothesis
A carrier effect is obtained typically when a hapten‐protein conjugate is injected into an animal which has previously been primed with the same hapten conjugated to another carrier protein. Under
The enhancement of a primary in vitro anti‐hapten response by carrier priming
The primary in vitro antibody response of mouse spleen cell suspensions to the hapten 4‐hydroxy‐3‐iodo‐5‐nitrophenacetyl (NIP) coupled to heterologous red blood cells (RBC) was enhanced by
Carrier inhibition in the in vitro response to a hapten‐erythrocyte conjugate
TLDR
Only at low antigen concentrations can the in vitro system be seen as a model of physiological T‐B interactions, and at high concentrations of free SRC, the NIP response is specifically enhanced.
ANTIBODY RESPONSE TO HAPTEN‐PROTEIN CONJUGATES IN CARRIER PRIMED MICE
TLDR
Priming mice with a protein prepared them for a markedly enhanced anti-hapten response to the conjugate of a hapten NIP and this preimmunization was carrier-specific and dependent on the priming dose of the carrier.
The thymus origin of the carrier‐specific cell in an anti‐hapten response in vitro
The primary in vitro response of spleen cells to 4‐hydroxy‐5‐iodo‐3‐nitrophenacetyl‐(NIP)‐ hapten was markedly reduced by procedures which depleted the spleen cell population of T cells. One approach
Hapten‐specific augmentation of the anti‐idiotype antibody response to hapten‐myeloma protein conjugates in mice
TLDR
Preimmunization of BALB/c and CBA mice with a DNP‐protein, such as D NP‐OVA (ovalbumin), prepares these animals for substantial anti‐idiotype responses to DNP conjugates of the BALb/c γ2a myeloma protein LPC‐1.
The effect of carrier‐primed cells on an adoptive anti‐hapten response
TLDR
The effect of carrier‐primed cells on an adoptive immune response was studied and recipients were boosted with NIP‐CGG.
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References

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The carrier effect in the secondary response to hapten‐protein conjugates. I. Measurement of the effect with transferred cells and objections to the local environment hypothesis
A carrier effect is obtained typically when a hapten‐protein conjugate is injected into an animal which has previously been primed with the same hapten conjugated to another carrier protein. Under
HAPTEN-CARRIER RELATIONSHIPS OF ISOANTIGENS A MODEL FOR IMMUNOLOGICAL MATURATION BASED ON THE CONVERSION OF HAPTENS TO CARRIERS BY ANTIBODY
TLDR
In chickens, erythrocyte isoantigens have hapten-carrier relationships and it is postulated that every humoral antibody response involves the cooperation of a carrier with a haptes and the progressive conversion by antibody of haptens to carriers.
The role of cell number and source in adoptive immunity.
The use of bacteriophage and bovine serum albumin as antigens for adoptive immunization has been investigated. Cells were transplanted from normal or previously immunized (`primed cells') donor mice
ANTIBODY-MEDIATED SUPPRESSION OF THE IMMUNE RESPONSE IN VITRO
TLDR
Mouse spleen cells treated with antibody were taken as evidence that in vitro an effect of antibody-mediated suppression occurred at the level of the immunocompetent cell, and the significance of the findings discussed is discussed in the light of current concepts of the mechanism of antibody -mediated suppression.
THE ROLE OF NONLYMPHOID ACCESSORY CELLS IN THE IMMUNE RESPONSE TO DIFFERENT ANTIGENS
TLDR
The results indicated that phagocytic cells are not required in the initiation of an immune response to POL, and some accessory cell, possibly a phagocytetic macrophage, is required for a response to SRC.
COMPETITION OF 19S AND 7S ANTIGEN RECEPTORS IN THE REGULATION OF THE PRIMARY IMMUNE RESPONSE
TLDR
The kinetics of the appearance of PFC in the mouse spleen after injection of SRC suggest that the depressive effect of 7S antibody simulates a reduction in SRC dose, whereas the enhancing effect of 19S antibody appears as a temporary increase in the rate at which PFC appear.
Role of Thymus-derived Lymphocytes in the Secondary Humoral Immune Response in Mice
TLDR
In experiments reported here, anti-θ has been used in vitro in an adoptive transfer system to study the function of thymus-derived lymphocytes in the secondary humoral immune response to hapten–protein conjugates, particularly in terms of cellular cooperation and carrier effects.
Immunological Paralysis induced by an Idiotypic Antigen
A DIRECT association presumably exists between idiotypic specificity and the structure of the antibody site. The level of a particular idiotype should therefore vary in normal individuals and could
Lymphocyte-mediated Transport of Aggregated Human γ-Globulin into Germinal Centre Areas of Normal Mouse Spleen
TLDR
This study has shown that injected immune complexes produced an identical pattern of localization of antigen in germinal centres in normal rat lymph nodes, and this localization did not occur in rabbits rendered tolerant to haemocyanin or human serum albumin.
CELL-TO-CELL INTERACTION IN THE IMMUNE RESPONSE
TLDR
The results were considered to support the concept that memory resides in the T cell population and that collaboration between T and B cells is necessary for an optimal secondary antibody response.
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