The carrier effect in the secondary response to hapten‐protein conjugates. I. Measurement of the effect with transferred cells and objections to the local environment hypothesis

@article{Mitchison1971TheCE,
  title={The carrier effect in the secondary response to hapten‐protein conjugates. I. Measurement of the effect with transferred cells and objections to the local environment hypothesis},
  author={Neil Mitchison},
  journal={European Journal of Immunology},
  year={1971},
  volume={1}
}
  • N. Mitchison
  • Published 1971
  • Biology
  • European Journal of Immunology
A carrier effect is obtained typically when a hapten‐protein conjugate is injected into an animal which has previously been primed with the same hapten conjugated to another carrier protein. Under these circumstances the anti‐hapten secondary response is usually less than that which would have been obtained had the animal been injected with a conjugate prepared with the same carrier as that originally used for priming. Attempts have been made to account for the phenomenon in terms of the local… 
The carrier effect in the secondary response to hapten‐protein conjugates. II. Cellular cooperation
TLDR
The adoptive secondary response of mice to conjugates of NIP and DNP is used to elucidate the mechanism of cellular cooperation and shows that helper cells serve a role as handlers or concentrators of antigen, thus enabling AFCP which would otherwise be incapable of reacting to initiate antibody synthesis.
Induction of anti-hapten antibody responses against haptens conjugated to autologous and heterologous proteins.
TLDR
The cooperation hypothesis (6,7) assumes this to be due to the lack of carrier specific T cells, and the question arises why these cells are unable to help a secondary antibody response to the hapten.
The carrier effect in the secondary response to hapten‐protein conjugates. V. Use of antilymphocyte serum to deplete animals of helper cells
TLDR
If transferred cells are boosted with NIP (4‐hydroxy‐5‐iodo‐3‐nitro‐phenacetyl‐) or DNP (2,4‐dinitrophenyl‐] conjugates of the protein with which they had been primed, their ability to make an anti‐protein response can be partially restored by adding cells primed against the hapten.
THE IMMUNE RESPONSE AGAINST HAPTEN-AUTOLOGOUS PROTEIN CONJUGATES IN THE MOUSE
TLDR
Results demonstrate the NAD specificity of the DNP-MSA-reactive T cells and support the distinct nature of the NADs over the haptenic groups, as recognized both at the humoral and cellular level.
The carrier effect in the secondary response to hapten‐protein conjugates. IV. Uptake of antigen in vitro and failure to obtain cooperative induction in vitro
TLDR
Spleen cells from donors primed with bovine serum albumin took up 4‐Hydroxy‐5‐iodo‐3‐nitro‐phenacetyl(NIP)‐BSA in vitro, as judged by their subsequent ability to induce a response to NIP in cooperation with NIP‐ovalbumin‐primed spleen cells.
The suppressive effect of carrier priming on the response to a hapten‐carrier conjugate
TLDR
It was found that the primary anti‐2,4,6‐trinitrophenyl(TNP) response to TNP‐KLH (keyhole limpet hemocyanin) was suppressed in recipient mice primed with KLH as compared with similarly treated unprimed or bovine serum albumin‐primed recipients.
The carrier effect in the secondary response to hapten‐protein conjugates. III. The anatomical distribution of helper cells and antibody‐forming‐cell‐precursors
TLDR
Findings from the adoptive secondary response of mice to hapten‐protein conjugates are interpreted as support for the hypothesis that helper cells are thymus‐derived, recirculating lymphocytes.
Inhibition of secondary anti‐hapten responses with the hapten conjugated to type 3 pneumococcal polysaccharide
TLDR
The results suggest that antigenic determinants on such antigens gain access to B cells and suppress IgC antibody production.
Bystander help in primary immune responses in vivo
TLDR
Bystander help induced by coimmunization may serve as a model for the induction of autoantibodies during normal immune responses in vivo.
Immunostimulatory activity of haptenated proteins
TLDR
It is shown that commonly used haptenated proteins, unlike native proteins, are inherently immunogenic, and this immunogenicity is TLR-independent, but the T and B cell responses induced are primarily haPTen-specific, rather than protein-specific.
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References

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The carrier effect in the secondary response to hapten‐protein conjugates. II. Cellular cooperation
TLDR
The adoptive secondary response of mice to conjugates of NIP and DNP is used to elucidate the mechanism of cellular cooperation and shows that helper cells serve a role as handlers or concentrators of antigen, thus enabling AFCP which would otherwise be incapable of reacting to initiate antibody synthesis.
Studies on hypersensitivity. I. Delayed and Arthustype skin reactivity to protein conjugates in guinea pigs.
TLDR
Findings in the immunization of guinea pigs with proteins conjugated with picryl, acetyl and ethoxymethylene-phenyloxazolone groups are discussed in view of the light they may throw upon the relation of delayed hypersensitivity to antibody production and upon the process of immunization.
Specificity of Allergic Reactions. II. Azoproteins in the Anamnestic Response
  • S. Salvin, R. F. Smith
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine
  • 1960
Summary Injection of 15 μg of a haptenazoprotein, such as p-aminobenzoic acid diazotized to hen egg albumin, in Freund's adjuvant, into footpads of guinea pigs produces delayed hypersensitivity in 5
Secondary antibody responses in haptenic systems: cell population selection by antigen.
TLDR
Primary responses late in the course of immunization may be obtained with DNP conjugated to proteins different from that used for primary immunization, characterized by a modest increase in serum antibody concentration and by a large increase in affinity for hapten.
The effect of antigen dosage on the response of adoptively transferred cells.
TLDR
The conclusion is drawn that high concentrations of antigen can paralyse the immunological reaction of primed cells, and both antibody production and IUdR uptake are inhibited.
THE IMMUNE RESPONSE TO A HYBRID PROTEIN MOLECULE
TLDR
The carrier property of subunit A is evident in the induction of both immunity and tolerance to LDH-III, which may be carrier-specific and receptors for the haptenic subunit B may not exist at that stage of the immune response to the hybrid enzyme.
Induction of immunological paralysis in two zones of dosage
  • N. Mitchison
  • Medicine, Biology
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B. Biological Sciences
  • 1964
TLDR
An interpretation is offered in terms of concomitant immunization, in which some cells become immunized while others become paralysed, and a double threshold of paralysis, which confirms the highly specific nature of paralysis.
Specific inhibition of antibody production. IV. Standardization of the antigen-elimination test; immunological paralysis of mice previously immunized.
The antigen-elimination test has been calibrated by means of passive immunization experiments. The effect of altering the amounts of antigen or antibody used in this test has been demonstrated.
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