The cannabis withdrawal syndrome

  title={The cannabis withdrawal syndrome},
  author={Alan J. Budney and John R Hughes},
  journal={Current Opinion in Psychiatry},
Purpose of review The demand for treatment for cannabis dependence has grown dramatically. The majority of the people who enter the treatment have difficulty in achieving and maintaining abstinence from cannabis. Understanding the impact of cannabis withdrawal syndrome on quit attempts is of obvious importance. Cannabis, however, has long been considered a ‘soft’ drug, and many continue to question whether one can truly become dependent on cannabis. Skepticism is typically focused on whether… 

Pharmacological treatment of cannabis dependence.

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Clinical management of cannabis withdrawal

The clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal is that its symptoms may precipitate relapse to cannabis use and complicated withdrawal may occur in people with concurrent mental health and polysubstance use.

The cannabis withdrawal syndrome: current insights

The cannabis withdrawal syndrome (CWS) is a criterion of cannabis use disorders (CUDs) (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – Fifth Edition) and cannabis dependence (ICD]-10 and the up-to-date ICD-11 Beta Draft is recommended to be expanded by physical CWS symptoms, the specification of CWS intensity and duration as well as gender effects.

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This chapter reviews data from recent research on cannabinoids that may be relevant for the development of pharmacotherapies for cannabis dependence and assesses the effects of potential cannabis treatment medications on cannabinoid-related physiological, subjective, and reinforcing effects.

A Systematic Review of the Efficacy of Cannabinoid Agonist Replacement Therapy for Cannabis Withdrawal Symptoms

The findings demonstrate that the use of dronabinol, nabilone, or nabiximols, either alone or in combination with other drugs, shows promise in reducing cannabis withdrawal symptoms, probably with a dose-dependent effect.

Treatment of Cannabis Withdrawal Syndrome Using Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and Relapse Prevention for Cannabis Dependence

It is suggested that weekly sessions of group cognitive-behavioral and motivational enhancement therapy may be useful for treatment of marijuana dependence and relapse prevention for cannabis use.

State of the art treatments for cannabis dependence.

Progress toward pharmacotherapies for cannabis-use disorder: an evidence-based review

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An update on cannabis use disorder with comment on the impact of policy related to therapeutic and recreational cannabis use

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Cannabis Withdrawal: a Review of Neurobiological Mechanisms and Sex Differences

Pre-clinical and clinical research on the etiology and biological substrates of the cannabis withdrawal syndrome are provided, and females have been shown to have increased rate and severity of a subset of cannabis withdrawal symptoms compared with men.



Development and Consequences of Cannabis Dependence

Clinical trials evaluating treatments for cannabis dependence suggest that this disorder, like other substance dependence disorders, is responsive to intervention, yet the majority of patients have difficulty achieving and maintaining abstinence.

Review of the validity and significance of cannabis withdrawal syndrome.

Converging evidence from basic laboratory and clinical studies indicates that a withdrawal syndrome reliably follows discontinuation of chronic heavy use of cannabis or tetrahydrocannabinol, and findings suggest that the syndrome has clinical importance.


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The time course and significance of cannabis withdrawal.

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Clinical Relevance of Cannabis Tolerance and Dependence

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Marijuana Withdrawal Syndrome in the Animal Model

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Nicotine withdrawal versus other drug withdrawal syndromes: similarities and dissimilarities.

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