The canalized parental roles of a Eudyptes penguin constrain provisioning and growth of chicks during nutritional stress

Abstract

Behavioral plasticity may allow organisms to respond adaptively to reduced food availability caused by climate change, facilitating population persistence. Conversely, inflexible parental roles may constrain sex-specific parental investment and amplify reduced reproductive fitness during nutritional stress. We examined chick-provisioning rates of… (More)
DOI: 10.1007/s00265-016-2060-z

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