The building blocks of planets within the ‘terrestrial’ region of protoplanetary disks

  title={The building blocks of planets within the ‘terrestrial’ region of protoplanetary disks},
  author={Roy van Boekel and Michiel Min and Ch. Leinert and L. B. F. M. Waters and Andrea Richichi and Olivier Chesneau and Carsten Dominik and Walter Joseph Jaffe and A. Dutrey and Uwe Graser and Th. Henning and Jeroen de Jong and Rainer K{\"o}hler and Alex de Koter and Bruno Lopez and Fabien Malbet and S'ebastien Morel and Francesco Paresce and Guy Perrin and Thomas Preibisch and Frank Przygodda and Markus Sch{\"o}ller and Markus Wittkowski},
Our Solar System was formed from a cloud of gas and dust. Most of the dust mass is contained in amorphous silicates, yet crystalline silicates are abundant throughout the Solar System, reflecting the thermal and chemical alteration of solids during planet formation. (Even primitive bodies such as comets contain crystalline silicates.) Little is known about the evolution of the dust that forms Earth-like planets. Here we report spatially resolved detections and compositional analyses of these… 


Mineralogical studies of silicate features emitted by dust grains in protoplanetary disks and solar system bodies can shed light on the progress of planet formation. The significant fraction of

The chemistry of planet-forming regions is not interstellar.

It is argued that inner disk chemistry is, as expected, fundamentally different from prestellar chemistry, and the clearest discriminant may be the concentration of CO2, which is extremely low in disks, but one of the most abundant constituents of dense clouds and protostellar envelopes.

Dust in protoplanetary disks: observations

Solid particles, usually referred to as dust, are a crucial component of interstellar matter and of planet forming disks surrounding young stars. Despite the relatively small mass fraction of ≈1% (in

Crystalline Silicates and Dust Processing in the Protoplanetary Disks of the Taurus Young Cluster

We characterize the crystalline-silicate content and spatial distribution of small dust grains in a large sample of protoplanetary disks in the Taurus-Auriga young cluster, using the Spitzer Space


We present Herschel Space Observatory PACS spectra of GQ Lup, a protoplanetary disk in the Lupus star-forming region. Through spectral energy distribution fitting from 0.3 μm to 1.3 mm, we construct

Episodic formation of cometary material in the outburst of a young Sun-like star

Mid-infrared features in the outburst spectrum of the young Sun-like star EX Lupi that were not present in quiescence are reported and it is concluded that the crystals were produced through thermal annealing in the surface layer of the inner disk by heat from the outburst, a process that has hitherto not been considered.

Reflected light from sand grains in the terrestrial zone of a protoplanetary disk

Observations of a 3-Myr-old star show that grains have grown to about millimetre size or larger in the terrestrial zone of this star, which complements the study of terrestrial zones of younger disks that have been recently resolved by interferometry.

The Formation and Evolution of Planetary Systems: Grain Growth and Chemical Processing of Dust in T Tauri Systems

This paper is one in a series presenting results obtained within the Formation and Evolution of Planetary Systems (FEPS) Legacy Science Program on the Spitzer Space Telescope. Here we present a study

Extreme collisions between planetesimals as the origin of warm dust around a Sun-like star

An exceptionally large amount of warm, small, silicate dust particles around the solar-type star BD+20 307 (HIP 8920, SAO 75016) are reported, which could be explained by recent frequent or huge collisions between asteroids or other ‘planetesimals’ whose orbits are being perturbed by a nearby planet.

Flows of gas through a protoplanetary gap

Observations of diffuse CO gas inside the gap, with denser HCO+ gas along gap-crossing filaments are reported, which is sufficient to maintain accretion onto the star at the present rate.



Radial mixing in protoplanetary accretion disks. V. Models with different element mixtures

Protoplanetary disks as birth places of planets as well as of their host stars bear dierent element mixtures owing to the dierent chemical compositions of the environments where they are born. The

Radial mixing in protoplanetary accretion disks IV. Metamorphosis of the silicate dust complex

The outer regions of protoplanetary accretion discs are formed by material from the parent molecular cloud of the freshly forming stars. The interstellar dust in this material is a mixture of species

Condensation processes in astrophysical environments: The composition and structure of cometary grains

Abstract— We review the results of our recent experimental studies of astrophysical dust analogs. We discuss the condensation of amorphous silicates from mixed metal vapors, including evidence that

Annealing of Silicate Dust by Nebular Shocks at 10 AU

Silicate dust grains in the interstellar medium are known to be mostly amorphous, yet crystalline silicate grains have been observed in many long-period comets and in protoplanetary disks. Annealing

Crystalline silicate dust around evolved stars. III. A correlations study of crystalline silicate features

We have carried out a quantitative trend analysis of the crystalline silicates observed in the ISO spectra of a sample of 14 stars with dierent evolutionary backgrounds. We have modeled the spectra

The spectrum of the young star HD 100546 observed with the Infrared Space Observatory

It is generally assumed that planets form in the dusty disks that surround young stars (Beckwith & Sargent 1996). The Infrared Space Observatory (Kessler et al. 1996) now enables us to determine the

Dust Properties and Assembly of Large Particles in Protoplanetary Disks

Recent research on the buildup of rocks from small dust grains has reaffirmed that grain growth in protoplanetary disks should occur quickly. Calculation of growth rates have been made for a variety

Steps toward interstellar silicate mineralogy. IV The crystalline revolution

Midand far-infrared spectra gained by the Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) of the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) satellite have provided striking evidence for the presence of crystalline

The Generation of Lightning in the Solar Nebula

Abstract The process that melted and formed the chondrules, millimeter-sized glassy beads within meteorites, has not been conclusively identified. Origin by lightning in the solar nebula is

The absence of crystalline silicates in the diffuse interstellar medium

Infrared spectroscopy provides a direct handle on the composition and structure of interstellar dust. We have studied the dust along the line of sight toward the Galactic center using Short