The broad range of contractile behaviour of the avian pectoralis: functional and evolutionary implications

@article{Jackson2011TheBR,
  title={The broad range of contractile behaviour of the avian pectoralis: functional and evolutionary implications},
  author={Brandon E Jackson and Bret W. Tobalske and Kenneth P Dial},
  journal={Journal of Experimental Biology},
  year={2011},
  volume={214},
  pages={2354 - 2361}
}
SUMMARY Wing-assisted incline running (WAIR) in birds combines the use of the wings and hindlimbs to ascend otherwise insurmountable obstacles. It is a means of escape in precocial birds before they are able to fly, and it is used by a variety of juvenile and adult birds as an alternative to flight for exploiting complex three-dimensional environments at the interface of the ground and air. WAIR and controlled flapping descent (CFD) are the bases of the ontogenetic-transitional wing hypothesis… Expand
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