The brief era of direct collapse black hole formation

@article{Yue2014TheBE,
  title={The brief era of direct collapse black hole formation},
  author={Bin Yue and Andrea Ferrara and Ruben Salvaterra and Yidong Xu and Xuelei Chen},
  journal={Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society},
  year={2014},
  volume={440},
  pages={1263-1273}
}
It has been proposed that the first, intermediate-mass (≈ 10 5−6 M⊙) black holes might form through direct collapse of unpolluted gas in atomic-cooling halos exposed to a strong Lyman-Werner (LW) or near-infrared (NIR) radiation. As these systems are expected to be Compton-thick, photons above 13.6 eV are largely absorbed and reprocessed into lower energy bands. It follows that direct collapse black holes (DCBHs) are very bright in the LW/NIR bands, typically outshining small high-redshift… 

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