The brief era of direct collapse black hole formation

  title={The brief era of direct collapse black hole formation},
  author={Bin Yue and Andrea Ferrara and Ruben Salvaterra and Yidong Xu and Xuelei Chen},
  journal={Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society},
It has been proposed that the first, intermediate-mass (≈ 10 5−6 M⊙) black holes might form through direct collapse of unpolluted gas in atomic-cooling halos exposed to a strong Lyman-Werner (LW) or near-infrared (NIR) radiation. As these systems are expected to be Compton-thick, photons above 13.6 eV are largely absorbed and reprocessed into lower energy bands. It follows that direct collapse black holes (DCBHs) are very bright in the LW/NIR bands, typically outshining small high-redshift… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Cosmological direct-collapse black hole formation sites hostile for their growth
The direct collapse (DC) is a promising mechanism that provides massive seed black holes (BHs) with ∼105 M⊙ in the early universe. To study a long-term accretion growth of a direct-collapse black
Direct collapse black hole formation from synchronized pairs of atomic cooling haloes
High-redshift quasar observations imply that supermassive black holes (SMBHs) larger than $\sim 10^9 ~ M_\odot$ formed before $z=6$. That such large SMBHs formed so early in the Universe remains an
The impact of reionization on the formation of supermassive black hole seeds
Direct collapse black holes (DCBHs) formed from the collapse of atomically-cooled primordial gas in the early Universe are strong candidates for the seeds of supermassive BHs. DCBHs are thought to
The suppression of direct collapse black hole formation by soft X-ray irradiation
The origin of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in galactic nuclei is one of the major unsolved problems in astrophysics. One hypothesis is that they grew from >10^5 M_sun black holes that formed in
Gravitational waves from direct collapse black holes formation
The possible formation of Direct Collapse Black Holes (DCBHs) in the first metal-free atomic cooling halos at high redshifts (z > 10) is nowadays object of intense study and several methods to prove
The critical radiation intensity for direct collapse black hole formation: dependence on the radiation spectral shape
It has been proposed that supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are originated from direct-collapse black holes (DCBHs) that are formed at z & 10 in the primordial gas in the case that H2 cooling is
The Formation of Intermediate-mass Black Holes in Galactic Nuclei
Most stellar evolution models predict that black holes (BHs) should not exist above approximately 50–70 M ⊙, the lower limit of the pair-instability mass gap. However, recent LIGO/Virgo detections
Witnessing the birth of a supermassive protostar
The detection of z> 6 quasars reveals the existence of supermassive black holes of a few 10 9 M⊙. One of the potential pathways to explain their formation in the infant universe is the so-called
Finding Direct-collapse Black Holes at Birth
Direct-collapse black holes (DCBHs) are currently one of the leading contenders for the origins of the first quasars in the universe, over 300 of which have now been found at $z >$ 6. But the birth
Initial mass function of intermediate-mass black hole seeds
We study the initial mass function (IMF) and hosting halo properties of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs, 104-6 M⊙) formed inside metal-free, UV-illuminated atomic-cooling haloes (virial


Formation of supermassive black holes by direct collapse in pre-galactic haloes
We describe a mechanism by which supermassive black holes (SMBHs) can form directly in the nuclei of protogalaxies, without the need for 'seed' black holes left over from early star formation.
Unravelling obese black holes in the first galaxies
We predict the existence and observational signatures of a new class of objects that assembled early, during the first billion years of cosmic time: Obese Black-hole Galaxies (OBGs). OBGs are objects
Ubiquitous seeding of supermassive black holes by direct collapse
We study for the first time the environment of massive black hole (BH) seeds (∼10 4−5 M� ) formed via the direct collapse of pristine gas clouds in massive haloes (≥10 7 M� )a tz > 6. Our model is
We use numerical simulations to explore whether direct collapse can lead to the formation of supermassive black hole (SMBH) seeds at high redshifts. Using the adaptive mesh refinement code ENZO, we
Pathways to massive black holes and compact star clusters in pre-galactic dark matter haloes with virial temperatures ≳10 000 K
Large dynamic range numerical simulations of atomic cooling driven collapse of gas in pre-galactic dark matter haloes with T vir ∼ 10 000 K show that the gas loses 90 per cent and more of its angular
Formation of the First Supermassive Black Holes
We consider the physical conditions under which supermassive black holes could have formed inside the first galaxies. Our smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations indicate that metal-free galaxies
How rapidly do supermassive black hole seeds grow at early times
We investigate the physical conditions for the growth of intermediate-mass seed black holes assumed to have formed from remnants of the first generation of massive stars. We follow the collapse of
Supermassive black hole formation during the assembly of pre-galactic discs
In this paper, we discuss the evolution of gravitationally unstable pre-galactic discs that result from the collapse of haloes at high redshift z ≈ 10 or so, which have not yet been enriched by
The characteristic black hole mass resulting from direct collapse in the early Universe
Black holes of a billion solar masses are observed in the infant universe a few hundred million years after the Big Bang. The direct collapse of protogalactic gas clouds in primordial halos with $\rm
Can supermassive black hole seeds form in galaxy mergers
ABSTRACT It has been recently suggested that supermassive black holes at z ≈ 5 −6 mightform from super-fast (M˙ >∼ 10 4 M ⊙ yr −1 ) accretion occurring in unstable, massive nu-clear gas disks