In present research, the brain maintenance of the error detection mechanism was studied in resting condition and while subjects consciously implemented incorrect actions (i.e. deception). Assessment of the regional cerebral blood flow revealed involvement of anterior cingulated cortex in deception. The obtained data indicate that it is impossible to consciously control the activity of the error detection mechanism. PET study of patients with obsessive compulsive disorder in resting condition revealed a decrease of brain glucose metabolism in the anterior cingulated cortex in comparison with healthy subjects. These data pointed to malfunctioning of the error detection mechanism. The findings support the formerly proposed hypothesis about the impact of the error detection mechanism in formation and support of obsessive compulsive disorder.