# The black hole final state

@article{Horowitz2004TheBH, title={The black hole final state}, author={Gary T. Horowitz and Juan Martin Maldacena}, journal={Journal of High Energy Physics}, year={2004}, volume={2004}, pages={008-008} }

We propose that in quantum gravity one needs to impose a final state boundary condition at black hole singularities. This resolves the apparent contradiction between string theory and semiclassical arguments over whether black hole evaporation is unitary.

## Figures from this paper

## 267 Citations

Models for unitary black hole disintegration

- Physics
- 2012

Simple models for unitary black hole evolution are given in an effective Hilbert-space description, parameterizing a possible minimal relaxation of locality, with respect to semiclassical black hole…

No Future in Black Holes

- Physics
- 2021

The black hole information paradox has been with us for some time. We outline the nature of the paradox. We then propose a resolution based on an examination of the properties of quantum gravity…

The black hole final state for the Dirac fields in Schwarzschild spacetime

- Physics
- 2008

We show that the internal stationary state of a black hole for massless Dirac fields can be represented by an entangled state of collapsing matter and infalling Hawking radiation. This implies that…

The information paradox and the locality bound

- Physics
- 2004

Hawking's argument for information loss in black hole evaporation rests on the assumption of independent Hilbert spaces for the interior and exterior of a black hole. We argue that such independence…

Control of black hole evaporation

- Physics
- 2007

Contradiction between Hawking's semi-classical arguments and the string theory on the evaporation of a black hole has been one of the most intriguing problems in fundamental physics. A final-state…

Jerusalem Lectures on Black Holes and Quantum Information

- Physics
- 2016

In these lectures I give an introduction to the quantum physics of black holes, including recent developments based on quantum information theory such as the rewall paradox and its various cousins. I…

Why Hawking Radiation Cannot Be Decoded

- Physics
- 2016

In this chapter, we come to the main part of the thesis—the extension of the Hiscock and Weems model to charged black holes with a flat horizon in anti-de Sitter spacetime, as a concrete example in…

Projective measurement of black holes

- Physics
- 2022

We study the eﬀect of projective measurements on the entanglement structure of quantum black holes. It is shown that the entanglement veriﬁcation in monitored quantum circuits, recently discussed in…

## References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 53 REFERENCES

Time Symmetry and Asymmetry in Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Cosmology

- Physics
- 1992

The disparity between the time symmetry of the fundamental laws of physics and the time asymmetries of the observed universe has been a subject of fascination for physicists since the late 19th…

Black hole in three-dimensional spacetime.

- PhysicsPhysical review letters
- 1992

The standard Einstein-Maxwell equations in 2+1 spacetime dimensions, with a negative cosmological constant, admit a black hole solution that appears as a negative energy state separated by a mass gap from the continuous black hole spectrum.

The stretched horizon and black hole complementarity.

- PhysicsPhysical review. D, Particles and fields
- 1993

Three postulates asserting the validity of conventional quantum theory, semiclassical general relativity, and the statistical basis for thermodynamics are introduced as a foundation for the study of…

AdS/CFT and the Information Paradox

- Physics
- 1999

The information paradox in the quantum evolution of black holes is studied within the framework of the AdS/CFT correspondence. The unitarity of the CFT strongly suggests that all information about an…

AdS-CFT correspondence and the information paradox

- Physics
- 1999

The information paradox in the quantum evolution of black holes is studied within the framework of the anti{endash}de Sitter{endash}conformal field theory (AdS-CFT) correspondence. The unitarity of…

Consistent Histories and the Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

- Physics
- 1995

A general review of the interpretation of quantum mechanics by consistent histories is given, together with its logical aspects.

Possible resolution of the black hole information puzzle.

- PhysicsPhysical review. D, Particles and fields
- 1994

It is argued that the decay rate in the black hole rest frame is necessarily proportional to $e^{-S_{tot}}$, where $S_tot$ is the total entropy produced during the evaporation process, entailing a very long-lived remnant.

Notes on black-hole evaporation

- Physics
- 1976

This paper examines various aspects of black-hole evaporation. A two-dimensional model is investigated where it is shown that using fermion-boson cancellation on the stress-energy tensor reduces the…