The birth of innate immunity

  title={The birth of innate immunity},
  author={Richard L. Gallo},
  journal={Experimental Dermatology},
  • R. Gallo
  • Published 1 August 2013
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Experimental Dermatology
Modern immunology has seen an apparent revolution with the recognition that human immune defense is not only the responsibility of bone marrow‐derived leucocytes, but also dependent on a coordinated network of many cell types including epithelial cells, fibroblasts and neural elements. This classic paper by Alexander Fleming and V.D. Allison (British J of Exp Path, 111, 1922, 252) was largely forgotten for 75 years and describes the discovery that epithelia produce a protein with direct… Expand
Dichotomous Roles of Cationic Polypeptides Targeting HIV
The cationic polypeptides described herein have been identified in either the genital or anorectal mucosa, which are the main target tissues for HIV-1 transmission, or are contained in human semen that is the source of most transmitted HIV- 1. Expand
The Frog Skin-Derived Antimicrobial Peptide Esculentin-1a(1-21)NH2 Promotes the Migration of Human HaCaT Keratinocytes in an EGF Receptor-Dependent Manner: A Novel Promoter of Human Skin Wound Healing?
The established ability of esculentin-1a(1-21)NH2 to kill microbes without harming mammalian cells, namely its high anti-Pseudomonal activity, makes this AMP a particularly attractive candidate wound healing promoter, especially in the management of chronic, often Pseudomonas-infected, skin ulcers. Expand
HIV-Enhancing and HIV-Inhibiting Properties of Cationic Peptides and Proteins
It is explored how the in vivo environment may select for or against the HIV-enhancing aspects of these cationic polypeptides by focusing on biological relevance, and it is stressed that the distinction between enhancing and inhibiting HIV-1 infection is not mutually exclusive to specific classes of cationo-peptide. Expand
Antimicrobial peptides and wound healing: biological and therapeutic considerations
The evidence for a role of AMPs as endogenous mediators of wound healing and their promising therapeutic potential for the treatment of non‐life‐threatening skin and other epithelial injuries is provided. Expand
Bacterial soft tissue infection in psoriasis despite induction of epidermal antimicrobial peptides
Induction of AMP was clearly shown by immunohistochemistry as well as by ELISA performed using skin‐washing fluids, suggesting that other factors, for example deep penetrating injuries bypassing the keratinocyte innate defense system, must have caused the soft tissue infection. Expand
The Role of Cationic Polypeptides in Modulating HIV-1 Infection of the Cervicovaginal Mucosa
This review explores how various cationic peptides and proteins participate in modulating host defense against HIV-1 of the cervicovaginal mucosa. Expand
Connexins and the Epithelial Tissue Barrier: A Focus on Connexin 26
The role of connexin mediated communication in avascular epithelial tissue is highlighted and one of the smallest connexins, Connexin 26, is expressed in diverse epithelia and mutations in this protein are associated with hearing loss, skin and eye conditions of differing severity. Expand
Antimicrobial Peptides: the Achilles’ Heel of Antibiotic Resistance?
It is reiterated that many AMPs exhibit direct microbial killing activity and also play an integral role in the innate immune system, which make AMPs attractive alternative antimicrobial agents. Expand
On the role of skin in the regulation of local and systemic steroidogenic activities
Skin is a neuroendocrine organ endowed with steroid/secosteroidogenic activities and establishment of which intermediates are produced in the epidermis in vivo and whether they circulate on the systemic level represent a future research challenge. Expand
Database Resources Dedicated to Antimicrobial Peptides
This chapter systematically deals with the 23 AMP databases published as of June 2014, and highlights select web servers for AMP prediction, useful for developing new compounds for food safety, pest, and microbial control. Expand


Antimicrobial peptides: an emerging concept in cutaneous biology.
Understanding the action of antimicrobial peptides in skin may yield further insight into the mechanism of innate cutaneous disease control and provide new approaches to therapy of wounds and inflammatory dermatitis. Expand
Skin microbiota: a source of disease or defence?
Current data contradict some historical classifications of cutaneous microbiota and suggest that these organisms may protect the host, defining them not as simple symbiotic microbes but rather as mutualistic. Expand
Epithelial antimicrobial defence of the skin and intestine
New advances in understanding of how epithelial antimicrobial proteins protect against pathogens and contribute to microbiota–host homeostasis at the skin and gut mucosae are highlighted. Expand
Epithelial barrier biology: good fences make good neighbours
There is an increasing appreciation that the microbiota affects systemic immune responses in addition to local immunity, and some of the current understanding of the impact of immune cells and diet on the microbiota is discussed. Expand
Syndecans, cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans, are induced by a proline-rich antimicrobial peptide from wounds.
  • R. Gallo, M. Ono, +4 authors M. Bernfield
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1994
Wound fluid contains inductive activity that mimics the in vivo induction in time of appearance, specificity for mesenchymal cells, and selectivity for syndecan-1 and -4, and indicates that wounds contain a multifunctional protein that induces mammalian cells to express cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans as part of the wound repair process and that kills bacteria aspart of a nonimmune defense mechanism. Expand
/journal/EXD Commentary: My Favourite Historical Paper