The birth of brand: 4000 years of branding

@article{Moore2008TheBO,
  title={The birth of brand: 4000 years of branding},
  author={K. Moore and S. Reid},
  journal={Business History},
  year={2008},
  volume={50},
  pages={419 - 432}
}
This article seeks to show that brands and branding are as old as known civilisation. We derive evidence of branding, in various forms, from historical periods beginning 2250 BC in the Indus Valley, through to 300 BC in Greece. This evidence is compared with modern research directed toward developing a meaning of ‘brand’. We observe a gradual transition from a more utilitarian provision of information regarding origin and quality to the addition of more complex brand image characteristics over… Expand
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