The bipolar spectrum: a clinical reality in search of diagnostic criteria and an assessment methodology.

@article{Cassano1999TheBS,
  title={The bipolar spectrum: a clinical reality in search of diagnostic criteria and an assessment methodology.},
  author={Giovanni Battista Cassano and Lilliana Dell'Osso and Ellen Frank and Mario Miniati and Andrea Fagiolini and Katherine M Shear and Stefano Pini and Jack D. Maser},
  journal={Journal of affective disorders},
  year={1999},
  volume={54 3},
  pages={319-28}
}
Failure to recognize subthreshold expressions of mania contributes to the frequent under-diagnosis of bipolar disorder. There are several reasons for the lower rate of recognition of subthreshold manic symptoms, when compared to the analogous pure depressive ones. These include the lack of subjective suffering, enhanced productivity, ego-syntonicity, and diurnal and seasonal rhythmicity associated with many of the manic and hypomanic symptoms, and the psychiatrists' tendency to subsume… CONTINUE READING

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