The biomineralization of magnetosomes in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense

  title={The biomineralization of magnetosomes in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense},
  author={Dirk Sch{\"u}ler},
  journal={International Microbiology},
  • D. Schüler
  • Published 22 August 2002
  • Biology
  • International Microbiology
Abstract. Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are major constituents of natural microbial communities in sediments and chemically stratified water columns. The ability of MTB to migrate along magnetic field lines is based on specific intracellular structures, the magnetosomes, which, in most MTB, are nanometer-sized, membrane-bound magnetic particles consisting of the iron mineral magnetite (Fe3O4). A broad diversity of morphological forms has been found in various MTB. The unique characteristics of… 
Ecology, Diversity, and Evolution of Magnetotactic Bacteria
The purpose of this review is focused on the diversity and the ecology of the MTB and also the evolution and transfer of the molecular determinants involved in magnetosome formation.
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Magnetosomes of magnetotactic bacteria are of great interest in understanding biomineralization and possible links between organisms and geomagnetic field. Fossil magnetosomes are ubiquitous in
A Novel Magnetotactic Alphaproteobacterium Producing Intracellular Magnetite and Calcium-Bearing Minerals
A novel magnetotactic spirillum (XQGS-1) is identified that is phylogenetically affiliated with the Alphaproteobacteria class and supported the view that MTB are also an important microbial group for intracellular calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate biomineralization.
Magnetotaxis in Prokaryotes
Magnetotaxis refers to the behaviour of some motile, aquatic, bacteria that orient and swim along magnetic field lines, which are important in the cycling of a number of important elements including carbon, iron, nitrogen and sulfur.
Rock magnetic properties of uncultured magnetotactic bacteria
A Cultured Greigite-Producing Magnetotactic Bacterium in a Novel Group of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria
Genomic analysis of strain BW-1 reveals the presence of two different magnetosome gene clusters, suggesting that one may be responsible for greigite biomineralization and the other for magnetite, a previously unknown group of sulfate-reducing bacteria in the Deltaproteobacteria.
Molecular mechanisms of magnetosome formation.
  • A. Komeili
  • Biology
    Annual review of biochemistry
  • 2007
This review focuses on recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms of magnetosome formation and magnetite biomineralization.
Biogenic nanoparticles: production, characterization, and application of bacterial magnetosomes
The ability of magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) to navigate along magnetic field lines is based on unique nanosized organelles (magnetosomes), which are membrane-enclosed intracellular crystals of a


Bacterial magnetosomes: microbiology, biomineralization and biotechnological applications
This review will outline aspects of the physiology and molecular biology of the biomineralization process and potential biotechnological applications of magnetotactic bacteria and their magnetosomes.
Formation of magnetosomes in magnetotactic bacteria.
  • D. Schüler
  • Materials Science
    Journal of molecular microbiology and biotechnology
  • 1999
This paper will outline aspects of the physiology and molecular biology of magnetosome formation, and the biotechnological potential of the biomineralization process is discussed.
Multiple Evolutionary Origins of Magnetotaxis in Bacteria
Phylogenetic analyses of small subunit ribosomal RNA sequences showed that all known magnetotactic bacteria of the iron oxide type are associated with the a subgroup of the Proteobacteria in the domain Bacteria, and suggest that magnetotaxis based on iron oxides and iron sulfides evolved independently.
Characterization of the bacterial magnetosome membrane.
Intact magnetosomes of Aquaspirillum magnetotacticum were purified from broken cells by a magnetic separation technique and revealed the magnetite to be enclosed by a lipid bilayer admixed with proteins.
Dynamics of Iron Uptake and Fe3O4 Biomineralization during Aerobic and Microaerobic Growth of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense
ABSTRACT Iron uptake and magnetite (Fe3O4) crystal formation could be studied in the microaerophilic magnetic bacteriumMagnetospirillum gryphiswaldense by using a radioactive tracer method for iron
Iron transport and magnetite crystal formation of the magnetic bacterium Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense
Magnetic bacteria are found in various morphologies as cocci. vibrios. spirilli and rods in aquatic mud layers. Magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) is stored in phospholipid vesicles as build-shaped, hexagonal or
Ultrastructure of a magnetotactic spirillum
The ultrastructure of a magnetotactic bacterium (strain MS-1) was examined by transmission, scanning, and scanning-transmission electron microscopy, and the term "magnetosome" is proposed for the electron-dense particles with their enveloping layer(s) as found in this and other magnetosome bacteria.
A Large Gene Cluster Encoding Several Magnetosome Proteins Is Conserved in Different Species of Magnetotactic Bacteria
A major gene cluster containing several magnetosome genes (including mamA and mamB) was found to be conserved in all three of the strains investigated and contains additional genes that have no known homologs in any nonmagnetic organism, suggesting a specific role in magnetosomes formation.
Electron microscopy study of magnetosomes in two cultured vibrioid magnetotactic bacteria
Magnetite (Fe3O4) crystals produced by two strains of cultured vibrioid magnetotactic bacteria were studied by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Both magnetotactic strains
Dominating Role of an Unusual Magnetotactic Bacterium in the Microaerobic Zone of a Freshwater Sediment
A combination of polymerase chain reaction-assisted rRNA sequence retrieval and fluorescent oligonucleotide probing was used to identify in situ a hitherto unculturable, big, magnetotactic,