The biology of human psychosexual differentiation

  title={The biology of human psychosexual differentiation},
  author={Louis J Gooren},
  journal={Hormones and Behavior},
  • L. Gooren
  • Published 1 November 2006
  • Biology, Psychology
  • Hormones and Behavior

To What Extent are Prenatal Androgens Involved in the Development of Male Homosexuality in Humans?

Some studies suggest that physical measures affected by prenatal androgens, including the index-to-ring finger ratio, growth indices, and facial structure, are more "feminine" in gay men, but many of these results are equivocal and may be confounded by other factors.

Prenatal Exposure to Progesterone Affects Sexual Orientation in Humans

Prenatal progesterone may be an underappreciated epigenetic factor in human sexual and psychosexual development and, in light of the current prevalence of progester one treatment during pregnancy for a variety of pregnancy complications, warrants further investigation.

Variations in Sex Differentiation : The Neurobiology of Gender Dysphoria

It can be concluded that there is biological evidence for sex differentiation and indications that lead science into considering biological components for gender dysphoria and for future research questions focused more on the possible genetic factors of gender identity, consider larger sample sizes and more replications.

Men and women, so different, so similar: observations from cross‐sex hormone treatment of transsexual subjects

The results of administration of cross‐sex hormone treatment to transsexual persons transitioning to the other sex are reviewed to lead to a better appreciation of the role of sex steroids in cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus which presently do not receive due attention.

Sexual Orientation in Individuals With Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: A Systematic Review

Results indicate that assigned females at birth with CAH had a greater likelihood to not have an exclusively heterosexual orientation than females from the general population, whereas no assigned males at birthWith CAH identified themselves as non-heterosexual, suggesting a wide diversity in measures used and a preference for unvalidated and self-constructed interviews.

Update on the Biology of Transgender Identity

Accumulating evidence indicates that prenatal biology likely contributes to transgender identity, but that its role may be interactive, rather than deterministic.

Pre-natal hormones ? Stress ? Immune attack ?

  • Biology
  • 2018
This chapter argues any effect of high or low levels of male and female hormones on the embryo in the womb and on later sexual orientation is small.



The endocrinology of transsexualism: A review and commentary

  • L. Gooren
  • Biology, Psychology
  • 1990

Androgens and male behavior

Sexual differentiation of the human hypothalamus.

The mechanisms causing sexual differentiation of hypothalamic nuclei, the pre- and postnatal factors influencing this process, and the exact functional consequences of the morphological and functional hypothalamic differences await further elucidation.

Sex hormones and male homosexuality in comparative perspective

Animal research has demonstrated the modifiability of sex-dimorphic mating behavior by hormone and brain manipulation, especially in subprimate mammals, and has led to radical attempts at treating

Sex steroid-related genes and male-to-female transsexualism

A sex difference in the human brain and its relation to transsexuality

This study is the first to show a female brain structure in genetically male transsexuals and supports the hypothesis that gender identity develops as a result of an interaction between the developing brain and sex hormones.

Sex hormones and female homosexuality: A critical examination

To ascertain the validity of hormonal theories of human homosexuality, which are based on animal research, this article reviews psychoendocrine data on lesbian and transsexual women. Sex hormone

Sexual Differentiation of the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis in Humans May Extend into Adulthood

It is found that the sexually dimorphic central subdivision of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis was larger and contains more neurons in men than in women in adulthood, showing that sexual differentiation of the human brain may extend into the adulthood.

Hypothalamic imprinting by gonadal steroid hormones.

  • R. Gorski
  • Medicine, Biology
    Advances in experimental medicine and biology
  • 2002
The concept of the sexual differentiation of brain structure and function has a potentially profound influence on clinical decisions with respect to sex assignment and clinical management of infants with ambiguous or poorly developed external genitalia.