The biology of cortical granules.

@article{Wessel2001TheBO,
  title={The biology of cortical granules.},
  author={Gary M. Wessel and Jacqueline M. Brooks and E. Ernest Green and Sheila A. Haley and Ekaterina Voronina and Jeremy Wong and V Zaydfudim and Sean D Conner},
  journal={International review of cytology},
  year={2001},
  volume={209},
  pages={
          117-206
        }
}
Cortical granule translocation
TLDR
Oocytes of most animals are halted at some point in meiosis (MII for frog and mouse, for example) and fertilization reinitiates the meiotic process and the exocytosis of cortical granules, but in sea urchins it does occur temporally coincident with the resumption of meiosis.
Diversity in the fertilization envelopes of echinoderms
TLDR
The results suggest that the preparation for cell surface changes in sea urchins has been shifted to later in oogenesis, and perhaps reflects meiotic differences among the species—sea star oocytes are stored in prophase of meiosis and fertilized during the meiotic divisions, whereas sea urches are one of the few taxons in which eggs have completed meiosis prior to fertilization.
FRAP analysis of secretory granule lipids and proteins in the sea urchin egg.
TLDR
Cortical granules of the sea urchin are secreted at fertilization in response to sperm fusion such that the vesicle-plasma membrane complex remains fusion competent and can thus be used for in vitro biochemical studies of secretion on a per-vesicle or a population scale.
Cortical granule exocytosis in C. elegans is regulated by cell cycle components including separase
TLDR
It is speculated that SEP-1 has two separable yet coordinated functions: to regulate cortical granule exocytosis and to mediate chromosome separation.
The C. elegans eggshell
TLDR
This chapter aims to define each of the eggshell layers and the molecules that are known to play significant roles in their formation.
The many faces of egg activation at fertilization
The signaling networks controlling calcium release and cortical granule exocytosis at fertilization are complex and multilayered, providing various points for regulatory input and quality control.
Cortical granule translocation is microfilament mediated and linked to meiotic maturation in the sea urchin oocyte.
TLDR
It is concluded that maturation promoting factor (MPF) activation stimulates vesicle association with microfilaments, and is a key regulatory step in the coordinated translocation of cortical granules to the egg cortex.
Souffle/Spastizin regulates secretory granule maturation by sorting lysosomal cargo from immature secretory granule during zebrafish oogenesis
TLDR
Results show that suf is necessary for sorting and fission during DCV formation and how does souffle regulate trafficking during oogenesis and what is the molecular mechanism behind the defect in suf mutant.
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References

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Cortical granules of the sea urchin translocate early in oocyte maturation.
TLDR
It is found that oocyte maturation takes approximately 9 hours in the species used here (Lytechinus variegatus), from the earliest indication of maturation (germinal vesicle movement) to formation of a distinct pronucleus, and the translocation of cortical granules in in vitro-matured oocytes begins with the movement of the germinalVesicle to the oocyte cell surface, and is 50% complete 1 hour after germinalsicle breakdown.
The fine structure of cortical granules in eggs and gastrulae of Mytilus edulis.
Cortical granule translocation during maturation of starfish oocytes requires cytoskeletal rearrangement triggered by InsP3-mediated Ca2+ release.
TLDR
It is shown that the increase in intracellular Ca2+, which the maturing hormone 1-methyladenine (1-MA) induces in starfish through the activation of inositol 1,4, 5-trisphosphate (InsP3) receptors, triggers changes in filamentous actin, which then direct the correct movement and reorientation of the cortical granules and the elevation of the fertilization envelope.
Cortical granule biogenesis is active throughout oogenesis in sea urchins.
TLDR
It is shown that cortical granules accumulated linearly throughout oogenesis, no accumulation was seen in the cytoplasm, in Golgi, or in other vesicles, and no heterogeneity of the contents was seen within the population of corticalgranules.
OOCYTE DIFFERENTIATION IN THE SEA URCHIN, ARBACIA PUNCTULATA, WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO THE ORIGIN OF CORTICAL GRANULES AND THEIR PARTICIPATION IN THE CORTICAL REACTION
TLDR
It is asserted that the Golgi complex is involved in both the synthesis and concentration of precursors utilized in the construction of the cortical granule.
Fine structure of the mammalian egg cortex.
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  • Biology
    The American journal of anatomy
  • 1985
TLDR
The origin of cortical polarity in mammalian oocytes and its possible relation to components of the cytoskeletal system and meiotic apparatus are discussed and compared with cortical features of eggs of other vertebrates and invertebrates.
Egg Membranes during Fertilization
TLDR
This chapter focuses on the egg plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum and their roles in transduction of signals from sperm, and studies of the many other organisms that have contributed to understanding of the processes of fertilization are discussed less extensively.
Exocytosis in Sea Urchin Eggs a
  • M. Whitaker
  • Biology
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • 1994
TLDR
The sea urchin egg is the only example of the reconstitution of an exocytotic mechanism in vitro that responds to calcium with anything like the efficiency ofExocytosis in the living cell.
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