The biology of cortical granules.

@article{Wessel2001TheBO,
  title={The biology of cortical granules.},
  author={Gary M. Wessel and Jacqueline M. Brooks and E. Ernest Green and Sheila A. Haley and Ekaterina Voronina and Jeremy Wong and V Zaydfudim and Sean D Conner},
  journal={International review of cytology},
  year={2001},
  volume={209},
  pages={
          117-206
        }
}
Cortical granule translocation
TLDR
Oocytes of most animals are halted at some point in meiosis (MII for frog and mouse, for example) and fertilization reinitiates the meiotic process and the exocytosis of cortical granules, but in sea urchins it does occur temporally coincident with the resumption of meiosis.
Diversity in the fertilization envelopes of echinoderms
TLDR
The results suggest that the preparation for cell surface changes in sea urchins has been shifted to later in oogenesis, and perhaps reflects meiotic differences among the species—sea star oocytes are stored in prophase of meiosis and fertilized during the meiotic divisions, whereas sea urches are one of the few taxons in which eggs have completed meiosis prior to fertilization.
FRAP analysis of secretory granule lipids and proteins in the sea urchin egg.
TLDR
Cortical granules of the sea urchin are secreted at fertilization in response to sperm fusion such that the vesicle-plasma membrane complex remains fusion competent and can thus be used for in vitro biochemical studies of secretion on a per-vesicle or a population scale.
Cortical granule exocytosis in C. elegans is regulated by cell cycle components including separase
TLDR
It is speculated that SEP-1 has two separable yet coordinated functions: to regulate cortical granule exocytosis and to mediate chromosome separation.
The many faces of egg activation at fertilization
The signaling networks controlling calcium release and cortical granule exocytosis at fertilization are complex and multilayered, providing various points for regulatory input and quality control.
Cortical granule translocation is microfilament mediated and linked to meiotic maturation in the sea urchin oocyte.
TLDR
It is concluded that maturation promoting factor (MPF) activation stimulates vesicle association with microfilaments, and is a key regulatory step in the coordinated translocation of cortical granules to the egg cortex.
Synaptotagmin I is involved in the regulation of cortical granule exocytosis in the sea urchin
TLDR
Results show that synaptotagmin I is essential for normal cortical granule dynamics at fertilization in the sea urchin egg, and identification of this same protein in other developmental stages also shown here will be important for interpreting stimulus‐dependent secretory events for signaling throughout embryogenesis.
Calcium ion currents mediating oocyte maturation events
  • E. Tosti
  • Biology
    Reproductive biology and endocrinology : RB&E
  • 2006
TLDR
This review is focused on the functional role of calcium currents during oocyte maturation in all the species, from invertebrates to mammals, and the emerging role of specific L-type calcium channels will be discussed.
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References

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Cortical granules of the sea urchin translocate early in oocyte maturation.
TLDR
It is found that oocyte maturation takes approximately 9 hours in the species used here (Lytechinus variegatus), from the earliest indication of maturation (germinal vesicle movement) to formation of a distinct pronucleus, and the translocation of cortical granules in in vitro-matured oocytes begins with the movement of the germinalVesicle to the oocyte cell surface, and is 50% complete 1 hour after germinalsicle breakdown.
The fine structure of cortical granules in eggs and gastrulae of Mytilus edulis.
Cortical granule biogenesis is active throughout oogenesis in sea urchins.
TLDR
It is shown that cortical granules accumulated linearly throughout oogenesis, no accumulation was seen in the cytoplasm, in Golgi, or in other vesicles, and no heterogeneity of the contents was seen within the population of corticalgranules.
OOCYTE DIFFERENTIATION IN THE SEA URCHIN, ARBACIA PUNCTULATA, WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO THE ORIGIN OF CORTICAL GRANULES AND THEIR PARTICIPATION IN THE CORTICAL REACTION
TLDR
It is asserted that the Golgi complex is involved in both the synthesis and concentration of precursors utilized in the construction of the cortical granule.
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The origin of cortical polarity in mammalian oocytes and its possible relation to components of the cytoskeletal system and meiotic apparatus are discussed and compared with cortical features of eggs of other vertebrates and invertebrates.
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TLDR
The sea urchin egg is the only example of the reconstitution of an exocytotic mechanism in vitro that responds to calcium with anything like the efficiency ofExocytosis in the living cell.
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TLDR
The folded cortex of the growing oocyte of the frog extends as microvilli into the substance of the developing vitelline membrane and, internal to the folds, possesses a layer of cortical granules, which contain neutral and acid mucopolysaccharides, and possibly protein.
Lighting the fuse at fertilization
TLDR
This work discusses the relative merits of the two ideas that it is the fusion of sperm and egg that is responsible for detonating the calcium explosion at fertilization, and discusses the creative tension between them.
The molecular machinery for secretion is conserved from yeast to neurons.
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TLDR
The results that support this possibility and a model for synaptic vesicle docking and fusion that incorporates evolutionarily conserved elements that may be part of a constitutive fusion machinery and specialized elements that might mediate regulatory events that are specific to the process of neurotransmitter release are discussed.
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