The biological hallmarks of ileal carcinoids

  title={The biological hallmarks of ileal carcinoids},
  author={Janet L. Cunningham and Eva Tiensuu Janson},
  journal={European Journal of Clinical Investigation},
Eur J Clin Invest 2011; 41 (12): 1353–1360 
Are Facultative Reserve ISCs the Cellular Origin of Familial Small Intestinal Neuroendocrine Tumors?
It is hypothesize that SI-NET originate from EC cells expressing reserve ISC markers found primarily at þ4 position in crypts and that tumors develop through a multifocal and polyclonal process.
Polyclonal Crypt Genesis and Development of Familial Small Intestinal Neuroendocrine Tumors.
Familial SI-NETs originate from a subset of EC cells (reserve EC cells that express reserve ISC genes) via multifocal and polyclonal processes, and increasing understanding of the role of these reserve EC cells in the genesis of multifocal SI- NETs could improve diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for this otherwise intractable disease.
Proteomics identifies neddylation as a potential therapy target in small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors
Findings suggest a role for CRLs and the ubiquitin proteasome system in suppression of p27 in SI-NET, and inhibition of neddylation as a putative therapeutic strategy inSI-NET.
The Impact of the Serotonin on the Cause and Treatment of Cancer
This review article goes through many researches based on the effectiveness of the neurotransmitter serotonin on cancer cells and also the impact of SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors)
Expression profiling of small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors identifies subgroups with clinical relevance, prognostic markers and therapeutic targets
The transcriptome of small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors is defined and identified novel subgroups with clinical relevance and specific gene expression patterns associated with tumor grade and chromosomal alterations are found.
The role of a Reserve Stem Cell Subset of Enteroendocrine cells in intestinal stem cell dynamics and the Genesis of Small Intestinal Neuroendocrine Tumors.
Characterization of early tumor formation of SI-NET, observed as crypt-based EC cell clusters in many cases of familial SI- NETs, suggests that the +4 active reserve EC cell subset is the cell of origin.
Ret receptor tyrosine kinase sustains proliferation and tissue maturation in intestinal epithelia
Experiments in Drosophila indicate that Ret is expressed both by enteric neurons and adult intestinal epithelial progenitors, which require Ret to sustain their proliferation, and suggest an epithelial contribution to Ret loss‐of‐function disorders such as Hirschsprung disease.
Global microRNA profiling of well-differentiated small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors
The aim of this study was to identify the miRNA profile of well-differentiated small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors, which may have a critical role in tumor development, progression and potentially develop miRNAs as novel clinical biomarkers.


Growth factor receptor expression in human gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours
Human gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours are functionally and biologically heterogeneous, but their exact growth factor receptor expression pattern, important for onco‐ and carcinogenesis,
Genetic alterations in poorly differentiated endocrine carcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract
The molecular pathogenesis of poorly differentiated endocrine carcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract (GI PDECs) remains unclear. It has been suggested that these lesions either originate from
Modulation of CXCL14 (BRAK) expression in prostate cancer
Chemokines are a family of cytokines that can play several roles in cancer progression including angiogenesis, inflammation, cell recruitment, and migration.
Nordic Guidelines 2010 for diagnosis and treatment of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours
These Nordic guidelines, written by a group with a major interest in the subject, summarises the current view on how to diagnose and treat patients with neuroendocrine tumours.
ENETS Consensus Guidelines for the Standards of Care in Neuroendocrine Tumors: Biotherapy
This work presents a meta-modelling study of the immune system’s role in the development of central giant cell granuloma, which is a type of cancer that is difficult to treat with conventional chemotherapy.
K‐ras and p53 mutations in the pathogenesis of classical and goblet cell carcinoids of the appendix
Examination of the role of p53 and K‐ras mutations in the pathogenesis of GCCs and typical carcinoids (TCs) of the appendix found to be intermediate between carcinoid tumors and adenocarcinomas, both histologically and biologically.
Fibrosis and carcinoid syndrome: from causation to future therapy
Improved understanding of the etiology of carcinoid-tumor-related fibrosis may lead to better treatments for this condition, and evidence to date for causative agents, in particular the roles of 5-hydroxytryptamine and elements of the downstream signaling pathway are explored.
The Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Cell System and Its Tumors: The WHO Classification
Abstract: Although well established in medical terminology, the term carcinoid is no longer adequate to cover the entire morphological and biological spectrum of neoplasms of the disseminated
mRNA expression patterns of insulin‐like growth factor system components in human neuroendocrine tumours
Insulin‐like growth factors (IGF) and their corresponding receptors and binding proteins are important in carcinogenesis for several tumours, but their expression pattern in the functionally and
Induction of apoptosis in neuroendocrine tumors of the digestive system during treatment with somatostatin analogs.
It is concluded that treatment with high-dose somatostatin analogs may induce apoptosis in neuroendocrine tumors, while this is not found during treatment with low-dose Somatostasin analogs or IFN-alpha.